Advanced Packaging & 3D Integration

Enabling Conformal Metal Barrier Seed Layers for High Aspect Ratio Through Silicon and Through Glass Vias

Advanced 3D integration to vertically connect multiple stacked wafers requires the use of through silicon or through glass vias. To enable smaller chip integration and reduce power consumption, TSVs and TGVs will move to higher aspect ratios. Forge Nano’s ALDx technology enables conformal coatings of metal barrier seed stacks to scale via technology to aspect ratios greater than 10:1 without the use of directional deposition technologies.

4:1 trench coated with an ALD metal barrier seed stack with electroplated copper on top


Directional deposition technologies, like physical vapor deposition and plasma-enhanced ALD, struggle with conformal films in high aspect ratio structures, particularly with metals. With Forge Nano’s ALDx technology manufacturers can enjoy:

    • Perfectly conformal sidewall and bottom coverage prevent void formation during Cu electroplating.
    • Isotropic process allows scaling to aspect ratios past 10:1, increasing chip density and reducing power consumption in TSVs and TGVs.
    • Thermal-only processing of nitrides and metals eliminates need for complex and expensive plasma hardware.


Through silicon vias are crucial structures to connect devices during 3D integration of wafers. To enable scale down of TSVs with high aspect ratios, conformal depositions of barrier and seed films are needed to prevent voids and migration during copper electroplating, causing device failure. Forge Nano ALDx technology deposits ultra conformal metal barrier seed stacks for aspect ratios greater 10:1 without the use of plasma-based deposition methods.


Atomic Layer Deposition cluster tool for 200 mm wafer processing

TEPHRA was designed specifically to enable advanced packaging applications in specialty 200 mm semiconductor markets. For metal barrier seed layers, choose from a 4, 6 or 8-sided cluster configuration with simultaneous single-wafer processing in multiple thermal ALD chambers for oxide, nitride and metal deposition.

Contact our team of ALD experts to learn more.