0:00:01 Welcome to our sixth week of the Catalysis. Our thanks to everyone for joining today. I'm looking 0:00:07 forward to introducing our speaker from forge Nano, Dr Staci and Moulton be to welcome you all. 0:00:16 My name is Laurie in Schultz, and we also have on here Brian for or You were both from the American 0:00:21 Vacuum Society at the University of Central Florida. And the way that this webinar structured is 0:00:27 that Dr Stacey Molten will give a 30 to 45 minute talk. And if you have questions during any time 0:00:34 during her talk, please go ahead and just type it into the chat box and I'll collect those questions 0:00:40 and ask them to her at the end of her presentation. And as I said, I'm really looking forward to 0:00:47 introducing our speaker. Dr. Stacey Mullen serves as an application engineer for business 0:00:52 development at Forge Nano in Thornton, Colorado. She is a key IT liaison with customers and product 0:00:58 partners for delivery of technical content, limitations of P. A, L D. And Market Ready Mrs 0:01:04 Applications, including cost analysis. She received her BS in chemical engineering from Oregon State 0:01:10 University in chemical engineering and a PhD from the University of Colorado, Boulder, studying LD 0:01:18 of Cobalt for active catalyst materials and her MBA from the University of Colorado, Denver. She was 0:01:24 the P I for an advanced research Projects Agency Energy Project for a LoDuca Telesis and its 0:01:31 Commercial Opportunities has authored LD and Pulumur patents and was a technology lead for a 0:01:37 research firm proposing research projects to the U. S. Government agencies on commercialization. And 0:01:43 today she's going to share a presentation on the basics of atomic layer to position and particle 0:01:48 atomic layer, deposition, work, dialysis and the benefits to process intensification in chemical 0:01:54 manufacturing. So go ahead and turn this over to you, Dr Molten for whenever you're ready. Okay, 0:02:00 great. And 0:02:04 it's 0:02:14 all right. So thank you. Ah Lorien. And thank you to UCF in the V s chapter. I'm very happy to share 0:02:22 what we're doing at Fortune Nano as well as a history of ale de Forca Tallis, ISS and I'm really 0:02:29 encouraged people to ask questions here, but also reach out to me after this, uh, webinar or after 0:02:36 you watch the video online after the event toe, ask questions to us or and be happy to connect you 0:02:43 with some of the research and other researchers in the area. So glory and said, I have my PhD an N B 0:02:52 A. I do focus on commercialisation of technologies. So particle atomic later deposition. That's what 0:02:59 we do it for. Two. Nano and um making equipment or the commercialization of advanced materials. So, 0:03:08 um, my background is for, um, to speed technology and what's possible for ailed de and the 0:03:17 commercial viability of those products and getting them out into the marketplace like it was 0:03:23 mentioned. I was a principal investigator for an RPG project that was the application of ailed e 0:03:29 Forca Tallis iss specifically Fisher Trump synthesis. I am going to mention a little bit about that 0:03:35 today. I also went through an Innovation Corps program or technology commercialization. Have 10 0:03:41 years experience in a lady on powders. 0:03:49 So I'm really happy about this event in this webinar because I did a similar event with Forged Nano 0:03:56 was the programming director for the P a. L D Summit on. We want to mention that he he ale the 0:04:03 summit is returning in December of 2020 s. Oh, this has all of the different applications. Comptel, 0:04:10 ASUs will be mentioned there, and so we want people to go on register for that event. We had over 0:04:16 900 people participate on first of it back in May, so we're looking forward to the second event, and 0:04:22 so please go on register and come join us at the second he a lease on it. So the outline for today's 0:04:31 presentation on going to talk about what Atomic later deposition is including particle atomic later 0:04:37 deposition. They're very similar, but slightly different and how you perform at work then, 0:04:44 specifically talking about analysis and how is ailed de he's or can Telesis. I'm specifically what's 0:04:53 catalyst systems and actions? What catalysts have been studied, as well as recommend some research 0:05:02 reviews and literature that is out there for you to go and look at, look at more and then come back 0:05:09 asking questions. Like I said, I would really encourage you to come talk to me afterwards or ask 0:05:14 questions here and then focus in on what is commercially viable for chemical manufacturing with a 0:05:21 LTE. So hopefully by the end of this you can see where the value is frail. The Incan Tallis ISS, and 0:05:30 really begs up to you, us a fortune ano and researchers in that every community and an industry to 0:05:36 determine where that value is and then apply. And that's what we want. A fortune, you know. So 0:05:43 fortune an over located in Colorado on this actually photo of our previous location just outside of 0:05:50 Boulder. Leap recently moved to you. Thornton, Colorado. We were founded in 2013. You're still a 0:05:57 small business with fewer than 50 employees. We just knew turning facility. It's about 38,000 square 0:06:05 feet, which is only a portion of the entire facility that we're in. Our mission is to become a world 0:06:11 leader in innovative material solutions. One of those application areas isn't Telesis. Um, most of 0:06:19 2020 is a very exciting year for forging Nano. One of our announcements is that back in February we 0:06:26 merged with a Lady Nano Solutions, which is it was another article Atomic Layer Deposition company. 0:06:33 So now we are the world's largest and most experts in particle time player deposition. Also, we had 0:06:43 to move facilities because we joined together both of our teens of ale de scientists and engineers 0:06:49 and all of our equipment together. So we moved to Thornton. Um, currently, um, we're just closing 0:06:56 down or sort of, ah Broomfield facility. 0:07:01 So a little bit more about us. We are an end to end material solution provider. So we have our Andy 0:07:08 equipment. We run particle ale de about 16 different systems that we run. Um, so we develop 0:07:17 materials science around different applications. We'll get the scale up of those materials and the 0:07:23 commercial viability of those materials with our partners and customers. Then once we actually 0:07:29 determine that there is by ability for that, we can go into told coding where we produce material 0:07:35 for our customers in house, so that could be anywhere from bear testicular tons of material. And our 0:07:43 end goal is to sell equipment or large scale commercial production. We also have lab scale 0:07:49 assistances. So we are the world's partner for R and D and commercial commercial scale, up for 0:07:58 particle atomic layer deposition technologies. So get into atomic layer deposition And what is it? 0:08:07 Actually, it's a thin film process where you're depositing material atomic layer by layer. It's now 0:08:14 this it's basically bricklaying process. You have gas space molecules that come in. They react with 0:08:22 surface a science surface engineering and lay down material. They build up layer, but they're in a 0:08:28 bricklaying fashion. So those green and blue rix, um, are representative of molecules. It is very 0:08:36 controllable process. If we look at this with actual molecules, this is a representation of aluminum 0:08:45 oxide. Deposition. That's a spontaneous gas days reaction on the surface. So it's a limited by the 0:08:53 number of surface reactive sites that are there. Um, it's a thermal reaction. There are other 0:08:59 options that you can do. Glasman Electron enhanced position techniques. Um, but particles that ailed 0:09:07 de should be mainly around thermal reactions. So you have a temperature window where you bring in 0:09:13 train Ethel Alumina in that first half, the reaction it reacts with hydroxy groups on the surface 0:09:20 produces methane. Then, once all of that, those surface sites have reacted. I mean no longer have 0:09:26 methane being produced. And you see the time Ethel, I'm gonna exiting from your reactor as long as 0:09:33 it's in a batch system on In the second half of their action, bringing water reacts with those 0:09:39 methyl groups on the surface reproducing that hydroxy group, and then you complete the route one 0:09:46 cycle building upon atomic layer of aluminum oxide. I'm gonna talk a little bit more about aluminum 0:09:52 oxide, Actually, for a catalysis application so ailed de has many different opportunities. Almost 0:10:03 the entire periodic table is covered here. This a periodic table comes from atomic limits dot com. 0:10:10 This is a wonderful resource. I really do recommend going here. If you're interested in a LG, you 0:10:15 see what has been done or analysis. Some of the areas that are of interest is this middle part. Your, 0:10:24 um, active material deposition may be titania eso your oxides. And so, for under coats and overcoats, 0:10:33 multi metal oxides, mixed metal oxides are interest here. You can also do organic or MLD or mixture 0:10:43 of organic and metal oxide deposition to end up with a highly porous oxide surface. Talk about 0:10:50 overcoats. MLD for over coating is a really interesting application that there's been some work done 0:10:58 at Ascot and journey with the ESA, so there's a lot of opportunities here. If you're interested 0:11:08 again, please reach out to us. So particle Islamic later deposition analogous to a lady is basically 0:11:16 the same thing. You're getting confortable uniform and pinhole free films onto surfaces this could 0:11:23 be a vehicle. Non forest particles. It be porous materials that have trenches kind of like this, or 0:11:30 just long pores, fibres, fabrics. There's a lot of different opportunities here, so this is what it 0:11:38 really looks like. I went to get to the images of that one. On the left is a non porous particle con, 0:11:44 formally uniformed coatings that I've named meter stick. That's probably not what you're gonna end 0:11:50 up doing in Potala, sis, but the one on right might be, And that's platinum deposition onto an oxide 0:11:56 surface and more about which one of these, the left or the right, might be the most commercially 0:12:03 viable application. But again, particles there in that image. That's what we focus on fortune, you 0:12:11 know. 0:12:13 So in our RD systems, when we do particle ale de off, most of that is done in fluid eyes beds so 0:12:20 that if you look on that right, the video is a lewd eyes Betsy of gas flow coming up from the bottom. 0:12:27 It's a rendering here. On the left hand side, you were a spritz on the bottom, holds powder within 0:12:32 the reactor chamber, and then Fritz on the top to allow paper to leave the area. Yeah, the bed zone 0:12:41 in the hills own where you put particles outer into the reactor on expansion zone. Were you reducing 0:12:48 the gas velocity? So you particles actually drop down and stay within the reactor, including that 0:12:54 disengagement zone. So you're particles will stay back down within the reactors. He's a really 0:13:01 efficient for recruits. Realization. Rail de Weaken get nearly 100% utilization and 100% coverage of 0:13:10 substrate surface in a flute. Ice bed. Um, again, So precursor utilization. We can have 90 a 95% 0:13:20 utilization of a platinum precursor. Just very important. If you are doing platinum deposition. Let 0:13:27 him alone is very expensive precursors, even more expensive. So the Prometheus systems are are are 0:13:35 devious systems that we offer for sale or a particle atomic later Deposition One of the rights The 0:13:42 left is the rendering. One on the right is one of systems that we have in house Bihar, R and D 0:13:49 scientists. To use a very powerful tool, you can do a wide range of chemistries you can get do a 0:13:58 wide range of sample mass so you can go anywhere for milligrams upto a kilogram of material 0:14:05 production in this system. 0:14:09 Um, the flu does Beds are not the only thing that we use for particle ale de eso staying within the 0:14:16 batch. Rome. They also do rotary reactors. There is a rotary Prometheus version, um, as well as 0:14:24 lethal dose, which is a larger scale batch ale the reactor. So the this vessel rotates and to coat 0:14:34 the material. There's some advantages to that for flexibility and how thick your depositing back 0:14:42 coating. And there are all those and disadvantages in that system, which is why we have so many 0:14:48 different kinds of systems. So in this we can go up to 200 kilograms for demonstration. You can see 0:14:54 how large it is right there. And we have designs. You know, we've been larger than that. No, I will 0:15:01 review are different systems again. At the very end of this, so moving from batch is unfortunately, 0:15:09 we focus on commercialisation of materials. So if you're going to be producing thousands of tons or 0:15:16 millions of tons per year, you need to go to a very large production greatly. Eso we used the app 0:15:24 systems or development of materials. We prove out their usefulness. And then we go up to our 0:15:30 continuous production, um, to get the economics of that production so seriously, as one of our 0:15:38 continuous production ale, the systems, this has substrate moving horizontally on a vibrating bed, 0:15:46 and we can get to breathe three times per day production throughput on this system. It's, uh it's 0:15:53 currently exists. So this is really fun. Um, I like showing this video. If you like this portion of 0:16:00 my talk, please go to the A B s ale de 2020 and RV people are in D Erlend Jammer on a V. I talk 0:16:09 about all of our different systems, and we end up how they work. Um, so on this continuous vibrating 0:16:16 bed powder moves along and it goes through those different zones right there. It's going through an 0:16:20 exposure zone to the different precursors. Then again, this is like, you know, this is an aluminum 0:16:26 oxide position. So you have time, Ethel, alumina and water. Now harder. Just news along and goes 0:16:33 through the three different cycles gets to the end of the system, and then that powder is collected, 0:16:42 so this is just a little bit slower video. I'm showing that powder motion. So this is fun. This is 0:16:49 what we dio. This is what we focus on it. Fortune Nano. So the rnd of the application space We work 0:16:56 with customers a week commission it to the commercialization full scale production serial. 0:17:06 So one last system eyes are semi continuous production systems for particle atomic clear deposition. 0:17:13 And this is Morpheus. I'm so rather than a horizontal moving on a I vibrating ed, This is using 0:17:22 gravity and nomadic trance for to move powder vertically through different systems to get the cycles. 0:17:33 All right, so for Geno, we were on article. Tom cleared a position. There are many different 0:17:40 opportunity spaces for this. The 1st 1 is in energy storage where we've had the most success. Our 0:17:47 second isn't a Tallis ISS, which diminished talk about today, went out. Some of the references 0:17:53 review papers, the opportunities that have been export and encourage people to continue to look for 0:18:00 other opportunities. Um, other application areas or thermal pillars, powder forming or three d 0:18:08 printing separations. So So heads or been some membranes and then as you go around, we've worked in 0:18:16 almost all of these applications spaces. The top five or the mainland's that were focusing on. Um 0:18:22 But we absolutely working most of these. And if you have some ideas, please reach out again. 0:18:32 All right, so now we're gonna switch over to talk about a lady for analysis, specifically you all 0:18:37 the background about forged nano and where we focus on commercialization. So this is some of our 0:18:45 data or be knocks careless with an overcoat. So I'm going to talk about the three different ways 0:18:51 that we see a LTE being useful or analysis. One of them is overcoats. So having in oxide, um, 0:19:01 deposited on top of your active catalyst material images over here on the left are showing 0:19:07 comparison off a Syria deposited onto a catalyst. And then this is a konia deposited, so it's not 0:19:15 the same material. But the main point here is to get get the point across that ale de will be 0:19:22 uniform. Oh, everywhere on the surface compared to sell jail, will you? Where you will get some 0:19:28 clumping on so you can see a little bit more of that pink trumped around and not as uniformed a 0:19:34 position that you get de with a nail de callous and then on the right. That performance, the goal of 0:19:42 catalysts, is long terms to belt stability. When you make a process, you want to ensure that you 0:19:49 were going to have consistent performance day in, day out. It's not going to shut down unexpectedly. 0:19:55 That's where you get your best economics. So designing your catalyst who form consistently is one of 0:20:03 the advantages for a lady. So an overcoat can maintain the performance over a longer period of time 0:20:10 and without having an overcoat on your catalyst, sister. Also, some other benefits that 0:20:19 So this is my view point of saying that ailed de for ca Tallis Iskan basically be like a treasure 0:20:26 map. There are opportunities out there waiting to be found. Um, and I am encouraging people to go 0:20:33 find them. So L d has been used for fuel cells for hydrogen production. For you had your information, 0:20:40 Dr. Nation? Um, Otoka. Tal assists. Nothing. Reforming came full conversion. I'm gonna also talk 0:20:48 about fisher tropes, which is what I did my king, she on. So there are other opportunities out there 0:20:53 waiting for a lady 0:20:57 in the ale de toolbox. This is what I was mentioning. So we have overcoats on where the you 0:21:05 typically and oxide, but it could be some other material. Mixed metal oxides, maybe is deposited on 0:21:11 top of the catalysts that's made in a standard method. Incipient witness or you have the active 0:21:19 material deposition. See, use a lady. You deposit platinum palladium, rhodium atheneum. Onda fell 0:21:27 out or you have under coats so you can deposit an ale de layer or maybe a mixed metal oxide or nox 0:21:36 side onto the base support and then use a standard method like incipient. Went this to deposit 0:21:42 tractor material. Or use a combination of a lbi methods to build your catalysts from the bottom up, 0:21:51 which also we're now. So the benefits you're looking for in chrysalis IHS or the durability long 0:21:57 lifetime having a higher selectivity and higher yield to the desired product so that you have less 0:22:06 separations in your processes and more energy efficiency on then activity, which will also increase 0:22:13 yield of the desired product. So as I mentioned in my title, this process intensification is a goal 0:22:22 of chemical manufacturing so that you will of lower energy usage and higher production of the most 0:22:28 desired product that they're increasing your selectivity yields decreasing the amount of separations 0:22:35 that you need to do in the process. I'm a chemical engineer. Background process, design and process 0:22:42 controls part of what we think about what you need. Palace. 0:22:48 So I'm gonna point out six different review articles here that I recommend people go look at if you 0:22:57 have not looked at them before on the 1st 1 is with Jeff Ulam You'll just on Britain's Prince Um, 0:23:05 there three great experts in Ailed de Jeff Eelam as ah recalling bars forged Nano He recently 0:23:15 purchased a meeting this system So they have that at Argonne National Lab Um, for some of the dough 0:23:23 is that they're do it. And, um e next one is this catalyst design with Atomic Layer Deposition. It 0:23:31 was Foshan 2015 another great reference or all of the different things that have been done with a 0:23:38 lobbying group. Al Assist, I'm Here's another line with Jeff Young and Peter Stare at Northwestern 0:23:44 on June jumping Liu, who was also it has another review paper here and a lot of work for alien 0:23:52 analysis. So bottom up, synthesis dimension that before and we'll talk 0:24:01 um, it's nano engineering. Petr genus catalysts on the Stacy events of this was from Stanford and 0:24:10 this review article for cows designed to be a selective atomic layer deposition and Tom scale 0:24:16 engineering of metal oxides for interfaces. So again, with something Luke. So there's two reasons to 0:24:24 do a lot for analysis. It can be as a tool for fundamental science, which typically will not make it 0:24:30 to industrial processes and then industrial processes. So those three different ways of doing ailed 0:24:37 he and combination for a guilty could tell assists, commerce, Active material deposition, the 0:24:43 overcoats in the under coats in our opinion, a fortune. You know, the active material deposition in 0:24:49 the still rate. Great tool for fundamental science. But it is not yet to the point for an industrial 0:24:55 process. Um, whereas Thea, under coats and overcoats, are much closer to an industrial process, 0:25:01 having an A level control. I'm at an industrial scale. So there are opportunities here, though, to 0:25:08 blur the lines and bring some of those under coats and over coating technologies back to ports, 0:25:13 fundamental science and with time and effort, there will be opportunities for that active material 0:25:20 deposition to transition to being an opportunity for an end of industrial process. The fourth thing 0:25:28 that I want to bring up here is area selected, lt, or you're controlling where maybe your act, that 0:25:35 material is on support. Uh, that has an opportunity to become an industrial process if you can 0:25:42 increase the selected. 0:25:47 So after metal deposition this is some work that we did at forging Nano for palladium deposition in 0:25:53 comparison to a baseline Lincoln incipient wetness deposition. So this history room here is showing 0:25:59 the particle size distribution. Um, so ale de will get you very tight, narrow distribution of 0:26:06 particle size. But the incipient witness can do really well. So there's some added costs that may 0:26:13 not benefit enough to need Teoh ale de of the active material of platinum palladium. 0:26:24 So some areas where theory, uh, can become reality and may actually be beneficial. Are these course 0:26:31 up or shell structures? And here is an example eso with lady man, platinum or shell materials. The 0:26:40 opposition of the metal, um, well, actually preferentially go to the metal surface. So your energy 0:26:47 differences a materials that will always go to the lowest energy state. So sometimes you can 0:26:54 selectively deposit material where you might want it to form these or shell structures. So these two 0:27:02 examples and bottom So this is from one of those review papers can have an oxide that's different 0:27:09 from your support oxide, which can change your selectivity. You can deposit around material again. 0:27:17 This all goes to what you're depositing and what you're depositing onto. The combination of those 0:27:23 things going to the lowest energy entropy state pulling that that's what you're going to get. And 0:27:30 then depending on what conditions you take over here, this is an overcoat material and actually 0:27:37 showing that overcoat on the palladium here. So bringing those back right now poor shell structure, 0:27:47 great fundamental science. It may not be industrially relevant. It, um, overcoats. Those were 0:27:53 getting much closer to being the mastery of industrially relevant callous. 0:28:01 So the area selective that position this is this was in the review paper, a zealous. Here's the 0:28:08 reference Teoh the original work. So this is taking pristine graphing, making some all tied, um 0:28:17 sites and then depositing palladium onto those specific sites so you can get almost a single site 0:28:24 palladium reaction. The opportunity for this is high selectivity so you can get high heeled to a 0:28:30 single desired product. Um, and eliminate secondary reactions in your street. So this will improve, 0:28:39 um, your overall process economics, and potentially be an opportunity for commercialization. 0:28:49 I said on that ale de treasure map of pork analysis, photo catalysis. So this is a bottom up 0:28:58 synthesis. I'm taking carbon nano tube and doing a complete a LTE processing deposition of platinum, 0:29:05 attaining the oxide and removing the carbon nanotube and depositing cobalt oxide all in a of the 0:29:12 steps and then looking at the hydrogen evolution. Um, so you can get really interesting great 0:29:20 results with failed e and every step being LD in a bottom up, sent synthesis. Um, but that may not 0:29:28 be economically viable. And so that's something that we look at a four channel. 0:29:36 I'm going to review my own work. My last name was Van Norman. This is from the University of 0:29:43 Colorado Boulder, where I did fisher tropes synthesis with a nail de palace. So it was a cobalt, um, 0:29:51 a position. It was metallic position of kobol so background on Fisher Trump synthesis. It is a 0:29:57 structure sensitive reaction. So your yield of product or your conversion of carbon monoxide, bishop, 0:30:05 census ticks, comics and hydrogen and makes synthetic oil. So if you look at that conversion and 0:30:12 part monoxide, her amount of cobalt, you have a P around 7 to 10 animators, um, on everything that 0:30:21 has been shown for the last 100 years of research and Fisher trope in comparison Teoh ale de and 0:30:29 increasing the number of cycles of cobalt deposited in a metallic method. So that was a lot of seen 0:30:37 and hydrogen. Um, with one cycle, your within the same turnovers are yields per Coval here that you 0:30:47 would get for a normal Fisher drops emphasis. Have a list. But if you increase those numbers of 0:30:53 cycles to a four and eight, cycles were much higher than anything that was any ever reported before. 0:31:01 In fact, it's ah, three times higher, then the highest efficiency had a similar conversion of carbon 0:31:08 oxide and selectivity. And that's important to be selecting points that have conversion and 0:31:13 selectivity similar eso that we're not comparing erroneous points. 0:31:22 So like I said, we're making synthetic oil from carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Mainly it makes a lot 0:31:28 of water. Really, they should call it a water production in action. Um, so again, this is that same 0:31:33 data. So it's a structure sensitive reaction. Once you get up to 7 to 10 mana meters, turnover 0:31:39 frequency stabilizes. I'm not using any of those other about atoms that are interior to the particle. 0:31:48 So, you know, if we bring in the ail data, the one psycho catalyst looks like it's very, very small 0:31:55 nanoparticles, and in fact, they are there around one nanometer, just kind of one would expect. But 0:32:02 if we look at the eight cycle catalyst and here is the error, bars are much higher than anything. I 0:32:08 turn over frequency than you would expect to see. So the very my peachy. Towards the end, we looked 0:32:17 at some other studies that actually look a single crystal comparison. So they took a tungsten single 0:32:26 crystal in an ultra high vacuum chamber. I'm deposited cobalt as a metallic onto that surface and 0:32:33 then transferred it over to a reaction chamber and looked at the turn over frequency with increasing 0:32:39 temperature. So when we plot our cobalt, it'll de catalysts on here. The one cycle is very low 0:32:47 turnover frequency that we expect for very small nanoparticles and the eight cycle cobalt is up here 0:32:54 within the error on these the air bars for that kind of a frequency study. Um, well, within the 0:33:01 error of their turn over frequency. So it appears that the cobalt was depositing more is a single 0:33:07 crystal form. And what we saw on surfaces is that you actually have very small nanoparticles. But 0:33:15 you have these cursed ill and surfaces as well. That's likely the some of the air. Some of the areas 0:33:20 some of the cobalt was depositing as a single crystal on. I'm not support. 0:33:29 So I'm the transition now. Two overcoats under coats and overcoats when I was at the end of my feet. 0:33:36 Studio is doing an RPG project. We actually have looked at the commercial viability of that Fisher 0:33:42 trope synthesis reaction on what we determined is that even though we improved the Fisher shops 0:33:48 synthesis E sing gas production was not my made the entire process no viable. So I'm actually gonna 0:33:58 highlight here where dry reforming of methane can be improved by. Lt. This is, um, this paper from 0:34:07 the University of Pennsylvania State. Um, here's the reference. So it has a calcium tight, neat ale 0:34:17 de layer and nickel deposited by incipient witness. So same nickel deposition on both. Just a nail d 0:34:25 layer here. So the l. D. When exposed to methane did not have this carbon nanotube or carbon whisker 0:34:34 formation, which with on a standard catalyst and dry reforming of methane, you will have the nickel 0:34:42 actually pushed off of the surface. And people react so much that you fill up your reactor with 0:34:48 carbon nanotubes, carbon whiskers that it will plug the reactor. Um, with that ale de undercoat, you 0:34:57 can actually shut off that coking formation and be able to operate consistently without harp 0:35:06 information. Without that, you have a consistent carve information to the area on what that looks 0:35:12 like. Are these carbon nanotubes here? Um, without a lady. And here is with ailed de, Do you know 0:35:19 how that to operation? 0:35:25 So an over coating This is a platinum catalyst. This work was actually also done at the University 0:35:32 of Colorado. Boulder abrasion Will yang. He has an 11 was there are known Well, eso you have a 0:35:39 partner Panelist with an overcoat here and aluminum oxide overcoat and then without an overcoat and 0:35:47 he took those different catalysts, six different catalysts here and exposed them to increasing 0:35:52 temperatures. You're in four hours and looked at the centering of the plateau so you can stabilize 0:35:59 your platinum. I having an overcoat so you can reduce the amount is over time. If you're gonna 0:36:05 operate a 600 degrees Celsius, you have to have more platinum there to have same activity at the end 0:36:11 of life. Then you would. And if you have an overcoat on the material, 0:36:20 So another example with overcoats here, um, the study in 2012 and that fortune Anna, we actually are 0:36:29 doing similar work to to this. Um so you have a palladium Panelist than an overcoat again of alumina? 0:36:37 They make my these micro pores cracking e overcoat afterwards to allow exposure to the catalyst. So 0:36:46 this is oxidative gee, hydrogenation of ethics, um, ethylene. And 0:36:54 so it has the initial without the overcoat levels here. And then you stabilized the production over 0:37:05 time so that you can perform much longer, Um, as well as, ah, higher selectivity. So, as I mentioned, 0:37:13 beginning in a in the title of this be 0:37:18 process, intensification is increasing selectivity and yield as well as increasing your durability 0:37:25 of your caplis. This is a really great example of ale de increasing your process intensification and 0:37:35 as a industrial relevant application. And actually, we are working with commercial partner. So this 0:37:43 is now work, um, at Fortunato with partners that we have worked with that seven Northwest National 0:37:48 labs of Enrile. I'm specifically Amy and Derek there, and Johnson Matthey said this was a bio 0:37:57 chemical conversion. So iconic acid to a depict acid. Um, over here on the right is the publication 0:38:04 or bio based David Cassidy. 0:38:08 So we did an overcoat of five cycles of alumina onto a palladium on Titania Catalyst. One of the 0:38:17 questions is is ailed de uniformly deposited throughout or structure. So this data here is showing 0:38:25 that the alumina throughout a poor structure is a positive uniformly is long as you are operating 0:38:34 within a nail the window and you let it run to completion. You will get deposition everywhere, how 0:38:40 it works. 0:38:43 So here is thesis, um, of the data. So this is for the regeneration reuse of the catalysts of that 0:38:51 blue increasing data as a fresh catalyst with out an overcoat and here is no overcoat. And after 0:39:01 five thermal treatments or regeneration, say of a significant drop in that conversion or your 0:39:07 productivity of the catalyst over time and if you re generate it and this blew a green and orange is 0:39:16 a fresh with an overcoat, and after those same five thermal treatments, you have the same conversion 0:39:24 over time. So that is, being able to maintain your catalyst with your regeneration is one of the 0:39:33 benefits of overcoats. So the other benefit here, for this example was that we could actually stop 0:39:41 leaching of palladium off of the surface. This is a very big advantage as well. So you're not losing 0:39:49 your active material to the process. 0:39:54 On this is the same study. Same work, a thes thermal treatments at 700 degrees C. So this is showing 0:40:03 similar to National Yang's work with platinum that this is for palladium and showing the centering 0:40:10 So 700 c for four hours, palladium centers without an overcoat versus with an overcoat, you maintain 0:40:17 the dispersed leading on surface. And because you're maintaining that dispersion, you're actually 0:40:23 maintaining your reactive 0:40:27 final. Um uh, study work. But I want to point out that we're doing it for Russia. Nano is an 0:40:34 overcoat on platinum. So this one is a little bit interesting because we're doing alumina oxide 0:40:41 overcoats onto aluminum oxides support. It's a little bit of a complication that you're depositing a 0:40:49 onto A, but there actually is some difference between an ale de aluminum oxide versus a support 0:40:56 aluminum oxide. We hope to have some of that information ready to share. That publication will be 0:41:03 outstanding. Our partners on this work our Jim, um Zang Lu at Argonne National Lab and Lee Abrams 0:41:11 primarily leaving brooms at GOP. And that's in it is manufacturing office funded project. 0:41:21 So just gonna reiterate again for fortune, Anna, we focus on commercialization, so we sell equipment. 0:41:29 We encourage people to be developing a LTE. Technology is not only into Telesis, that is one of the 0:41:36 our, uh, education areas. I'm excited about eso. We sell tools like for me, theus or people to do 0:41:43 research and develop technologies so that then they can come back to us and we can scale it in 0:41:48 systems like Morpheus or serious here. Legal's, um so all of our equipment that is available seller, 0:41:56 lab scale systems I mentioned Prometheus. Well, Sava. Thena But Pandora, the official product 0:42:02 release will be coming out very soon. If you're interested in commercialisation, um, there's some 0:42:09 opportunities about Pandora will be announcing Please reach out to me about that. And then our 0:42:16 commercial scale systems lead those Marcus in Searcy and so, uh, origin. And so we have the world's 0:42:24 experts in part of Li l. D. In the commercial systems to back it up and the commercialization 0:42:30 programs.