0:00:01   Welcome to our sixth week of the Catalysis. Our thanks to everyone for joining today. I'm looking
0:00:07   forward to introducing our speaker from forge Nano, Dr Staci and Moulton be to welcome you all.
0:00:16   My name is Laurie in Schultz, and we also have on here Brian for or You were both from the American
0:00:21   Vacuum Society at the University of Central Florida. And the way that this webinar structured is
0:00:27   that Dr Stacey Molten will give a 30 to 45 minute talk. And if you have questions during any time
0:00:34   during her talk, please go ahead and just type it into the chat box and I'll collect those questions
0:00:40   and ask them to her at the end of her presentation. And as I said, I'm really looking forward to
0:00:47   introducing our speaker. Dr. Stacey Mullen serves as an application engineer for business
0:00:52   development at Forge Nano in Thornton, Colorado. She is a key IT liaison with customers and product
0:00:58   partners for delivery of technical content, limitations of P. A, L D. And Market Ready Mrs
0:01:04   Applications, including cost analysis. She received her BS in chemical engineering from Oregon State
0:01:10   University in chemical engineering and a PhD from the University of Colorado, Boulder, studying LD
0:01:18   of Cobalt for active catalyst materials and her MBA from the University of Colorado, Denver. She was
0:01:24   the P I for an advanced research Projects Agency Energy Project for a LoDuca Telesis and its
0:01:31   Commercial Opportunities has authored LD and Pulumur patents and was a technology lead for a
0:01:37   research firm proposing research projects to the U. S. Government agencies on commercialization. And
0:01:43   today she's going to share a presentation on the basics of atomic layer to position and particle
0:01:48   atomic layer, deposition, work, dialysis and the benefits to process intensification in chemical
0:01:54   manufacturing. So go ahead and turn this over to you, Dr Molten for whenever you're ready. Okay,
0:02:00   great. And
0:02:04   it's
0:02:14   all right. So thank you. Ah Lorien. And thank you to UCF in the V s chapter. I'm very happy to share
0:02:22   what we're doing at Fortune Nano as well as a history of ale de Forca Tallis, ISS and I'm really
0:02:29   encouraged people to ask questions here, but also reach out to me after this, uh, webinar or after
0:02:36   you watch the video online after the event toe, ask questions to us or and be happy to connect you
0:02:43   with some of the research and other researchers in the area. So glory and said, I have my PhD an N B
0:02:52   A. I do focus on commercialisation of technologies. So particle atomic later deposition. That's what
0:02:59   we do it for. Two. Nano and um making equipment or the commercialization of advanced materials. So,
0:03:08   um, my background is for, um, to speed technology and what's possible for ailed de and the
0:03:17   commercial viability of those products and getting them out into the marketplace like it was
0:03:23   mentioned. I was a principal investigator for an RPG project that was the application of ailed e
0:03:29   Forca Tallis iss specifically Fisher Trump synthesis. I am going to mention a little bit about that
0:03:35   today. I also went through an Innovation Corps program or technology commercialization. Have 10
0:03:41   years experience in a lady on powders.
0:03:49   So I'm really happy about this event in this webinar because I did a similar event with Forged Nano
0:03:56   was the programming director for the P a. L D Summit on. We want to mention that he he ale the
0:04:03   summit is returning in December of 2020 s. Oh, this has all of the different applications. Comptel,
0:04:10   ASUs will be mentioned there, and so we want people to go on register for that event. We had over
0:04:16   900 people participate on first of it back in May, so we're looking forward to the second event, and
0:04:22   so please go on register and come join us at the second he a lease on it. So the outline for today's
0:04:31   presentation on going to talk about what Atomic later deposition is including particle atomic later
0:04:37   deposition. They're very similar, but slightly different and how you perform at work then,
0:04:44   specifically talking about analysis and how is ailed de he's or can Telesis. I'm specifically what's
0:04:53   catalyst systems and actions? What catalysts have been studied, as well as recommend some research
0:05:02   reviews and literature that is out there for you to go and look at, look at more and then come back
0:05:09   asking questions. Like I said, I would really encourage you to come talk to me afterwards or ask
0:05:14   questions here and then focus in on what is commercially viable for chemical manufacturing with a
0:05:21   LTE. So hopefully by the end of this you can see where the value is frail. The Incan Tallis ISS, and
0:05:30   really begs up to you, us a fortune ano and researchers in that every community and an industry to
0:05:36   determine where that value is and then apply. And that's what we want. A fortune, you know. So
0:05:43   fortune an over located in Colorado on this actually photo of our previous location just outside of
0:05:50   Boulder. Leap recently moved to you. Thornton, Colorado. We were founded in 2013. You're still a
0:05:57   small business with fewer than 50 employees. We just knew turning facility. It's about 38,000 square
0:06:05   feet, which is only a portion of the entire facility that we're in. Our mission is to become a world
0:06:11   leader in innovative material solutions. One of those application areas isn't Telesis. Um, most of
0:06:19   2020 is a very exciting year for forging Nano. One of our announcements is that back in February we
0:06:26   merged with a Lady Nano Solutions, which is it was another article Atomic Layer Deposition company.
0:06:33   So now we are the world's largest and most experts in particle time player deposition. Also, we had
0:06:43   to move facilities because we joined together both of our teens of ale de scientists and engineers
0:06:49   and all of our equipment together. So we moved to Thornton. Um, currently, um, we're just closing
0:06:56   down or sort of, ah Broomfield facility.
0:07:01   So a little bit more about us. We are an end to end material solution provider. So we have our Andy
0:07:08   equipment. We run particle ale de about 16 different systems that we run. Um, so we develop
0:07:17   materials science around different applications. We'll get the scale up of those materials and the
0:07:23   commercial viability of those materials with our partners and customers. Then once we actually
0:07:29   determine that there is by ability for that, we can go into told coding where we produce material
0:07:35   for our customers in house, so that could be anywhere from bear testicular tons of material. And our
0:07:43   end goal is to sell equipment or large scale commercial production. We also have lab scale
0:07:49   assistances. So we are the world's partner for R and D and commercial commercial scale, up for
0:07:58   particle atomic layer deposition technologies. So get into atomic layer deposition And what is it?
0:08:07   Actually, it's a thin film process where you're depositing material atomic layer by layer. It's now
0:08:14   this it's basically bricklaying process. You have gas space molecules that come in. They react with
0:08:22   surface a science surface engineering and lay down material. They build up layer, but they're in a
0:08:28   bricklaying fashion. So those green and blue rix, um, are representative of molecules. It is very
0:08:36   controllable process. If we look at this with actual molecules, this is a representation of aluminum
0:08:45   oxide. Deposition. That's a spontaneous gas days reaction on the surface. So it's a limited by the
0:08:53   number of surface reactive sites that are there. Um, it's a thermal reaction. There are other
0:08:59   options that you can do. Glasman Electron enhanced position techniques. Um, but particles that ailed
0:09:07   de should be mainly around thermal reactions. So you have a temperature window where you bring in
0:09:13   train Ethel Alumina in that first half, the reaction it reacts with hydroxy groups on the surface
0:09:20   produces methane. Then, once all of that, those surface sites have reacted. I mean no longer have
0:09:26   methane being produced. And you see the time Ethel, I'm gonna exiting from your reactor as long as
0:09:33   it's in a batch system on In the second half of their action, bringing water reacts with those
0:09:39   methyl groups on the surface reproducing that hydroxy group, and then you complete the route one
0:09:46   cycle building upon atomic layer of aluminum oxide. I'm gonna talk a little bit more about aluminum
0:09:52   oxide, Actually, for a catalysis application so ailed de has many different opportunities. Almost
0:10:03   the entire periodic table is covered here. This a periodic table comes from atomic limits dot com.
0:10:10   This is a wonderful resource. I really do recommend going here. If you're interested in a LG, you
0:10:15   see what has been done or analysis. Some of the areas that are of interest is this middle part. Your,
0:10:24   um, active material deposition may be titania eso your oxides. And so, for under coats and overcoats,
0:10:33   multi metal oxides, mixed metal oxides are interest here. You can also do organic or MLD or mixture
0:10:43   of organic and metal oxide deposition to end up with a highly porous oxide surface. Talk about
0:10:50   overcoats. MLD for over coating is a really interesting application that there's been some work done
0:10:58   at Ascot and journey with the ESA, so there's a lot of opportunities here. If you're interested
0:11:08   again, please reach out to us. So particle Islamic later deposition analogous to a lady is basically
0:11:16   the same thing. You're getting confortable uniform and pinhole free films onto surfaces this could
0:11:23   be a vehicle. Non forest particles. It be porous materials that have trenches kind of like this, or
0:11:30   just long pores, fibres, fabrics. There's a lot of different opportunities here, so this is what it
0:11:38   really looks like. I went to get to the images of that one. On the left is a non porous particle con,
0:11:44   formally uniformed coatings that I've named meter stick. That's probably not what you're gonna end
0:11:50   up doing in Potala, sis, but the one on right might be, And that's platinum deposition onto an oxide
0:11:56   surface and more about which one of these, the left or the right, might be the most commercially
0:12:03   viable application. But again, particles there in that image. That's what we focus on fortune, you
0:12:11   know.
0:12:13   So in our RD systems, when we do particle ale de off, most of that is done in fluid eyes beds so
0:12:20   that if you look on that right, the video is a lewd eyes Betsy of gas flow coming up from the bottom.
0:12:27   It's a rendering here. On the left hand side, you were a spritz on the bottom, holds powder within
0:12:32   the reactor chamber, and then Fritz on the top to allow paper to leave the area. Yeah, the bed zone
0:12:41   in the hills own where you put particles outer into the reactor on expansion zone. Were you reducing
0:12:48   the gas velocity? So you particles actually drop down and stay within the reactor, including that
0:12:54   disengagement zone. So you're particles will stay back down within the reactors. He's a really
0:13:01   efficient for recruits. Realization. Rail de Weaken get nearly 100% utilization and 100% coverage of
0:13:10   substrate surface in a flute. Ice bed. Um, again, So precursor utilization. We can have 90 a 95%
0:13:20   utilization of a platinum precursor. Just very important. If you are doing platinum deposition. Let
0:13:27   him alone is very expensive precursors, even more expensive. So the Prometheus systems are are are
0:13:35   devious systems that we offer for sale or a particle atomic later Deposition One of the rights The
0:13:42   left is the rendering. One on the right is one of systems that we have in house Bihar, R and D
0:13:49   scientists. To use a very powerful tool, you can do a wide range of chemistries you can get do a
0:13:58   wide range of sample mass so you can go anywhere for milligrams upto a kilogram of material
0:14:05   production in this system.
0:14:09   Um, the flu does Beds are not the only thing that we use for particle ale de eso staying within the
0:14:16   batch. Rome. They also do rotary reactors. There is a rotary Prometheus version, um, as well as
0:14:24   lethal dose, which is a larger scale batch ale the reactor. So the this vessel rotates and to coat
0:14:34   the material. There's some advantages to that for flexibility and how thick your depositing back
0:14:42   coating. And there are all those and disadvantages in that system, which is why we have so many
0:14:48   different kinds of systems. So in this we can go up to 200 kilograms for demonstration. You can see
0:14:54   how large it is right there. And we have designs. You know, we've been larger than that. No, I will
0:15:01   review are different systems again. At the very end of this, so moving from batch is unfortunately,
0:15:09   we focus on commercialisation of materials. So if you're going to be producing thousands of tons or
0:15:16   millions of tons per year, you need to go to a very large production greatly. Eso we used the app
0:15:24   systems or development of materials. We prove out their usefulness. And then we go up to our
0:15:30   continuous production, um, to get the economics of that production so seriously, as one of our
0:15:38   continuous production ale, the systems, this has substrate moving horizontally on a vibrating bed,
0:15:46   and we can get to breathe three times per day production throughput on this system. It's, uh it's
0:15:53   currently exists. So this is really fun. Um, I like showing this video. If you like this portion of
0:16:00   my talk, please go to the A B s ale de 2020 and RV people are in D Erlend Jammer on a V. I talk
0:16:09   about all of our different systems, and we end up how they work. Um, so on this continuous vibrating
0:16:16   bed powder moves along and it goes through those different zones right there. It's going through an
0:16:20   exposure zone to the different precursors. Then again, this is like, you know, this is an aluminum
0:16:26   oxide position. So you have time, Ethel, alumina and water. Now harder. Just news along and goes
0:16:33   through the three different cycles gets to the end of the system, and then that powder is collected,
0:16:42   so this is just a little bit slower video. I'm showing that powder motion. So this is fun. This is
0:16:49   what we dio. This is what we focus on it. Fortune Nano. So the rnd of the application space We work
0:16:56   with customers a week commission it to the commercialization full scale production serial.
0:17:06   So one last system eyes are semi continuous production systems for particle atomic clear deposition.
0:17:13   And this is Morpheus. I'm so rather than a horizontal moving on a I vibrating ed, This is using
0:17:22   gravity and nomadic trance for to move powder vertically through different systems to get the cycles.
0:17:33   All right, so for Geno, we were on article. Tom cleared a position. There are many different
0:17:40   opportunity spaces for this. The 1st 1 is in energy storage where we've had the most success. Our
0:17:47   second isn't a Tallis ISS, which diminished talk about today, went out. Some of the references
0:17:53   review papers, the opportunities that have been export and encourage people to continue to look for
0:18:00   other opportunities. Um, other application areas or thermal pillars, powder forming or three d
0:18:08   printing separations. So So heads or been some membranes and then as you go around, we've worked in
0:18:16   almost all of these applications spaces. The top five or the mainland's that were focusing on. Um
0:18:22   But we absolutely working most of these. And if you have some ideas, please reach out again.
0:18:32   All right, so now we're gonna switch over to talk about a lady for analysis, specifically you all
0:18:37   the background about forged nano and where we focus on commercialization. So this is some of our
0:18:45   data or be knocks careless with an overcoat. So I'm going to talk about the three different ways
0:18:51   that we see a LTE being useful or analysis. One of them is overcoats. So having in oxide, um,
0:19:01   deposited on top of your active catalyst material images over here on the left are showing
0:19:07   comparison off a Syria deposited onto a catalyst. And then this is a konia deposited, so it's not
0:19:15   the same material. But the main point here is to get get the point across that ale de will be
0:19:22   uniform. Oh, everywhere on the surface compared to sell jail, will you? Where you will get some
0:19:28   clumping on so you can see a little bit more of that pink trumped around and not as uniformed a
0:19:34   position that you get de with a nail de callous and then on the right. That performance, the goal of
0:19:42   catalysts, is long terms to belt stability. When you make a process, you want to ensure that you
0:19:49   were going to have consistent performance day in, day out. It's not going to shut down unexpectedly.
0:19:55   That's where you get your best economics. So designing your catalyst who form consistently is one of
0:20:03   the advantages for a lady. So an overcoat can maintain the performance over a longer period of time
0:20:10   and without having an overcoat on your catalyst, sister. Also, some other benefits that
0:20:19   So this is my view point of saying that ailed de for ca Tallis Iskan basically be like a treasure
0:20:26   map. There are opportunities out there waiting to be found. Um, and I am encouraging people to go
0:20:33   find them. So L d has been used for fuel cells for hydrogen production. For you had your information,
0:20:40   Dr. Nation? Um, Otoka. Tal assists. Nothing. Reforming came full conversion. I'm gonna also talk
0:20:48   about fisher tropes, which is what I did my king, she on. So there are other opportunities out there
0:20:53   waiting for a lady
0:20:57   in the ale de toolbox. This is what I was mentioning. So we have overcoats on where the you
0:21:05   typically and oxide, but it could be some other material. Mixed metal oxides, maybe is deposited on
0:21:11   top of the catalysts that's made in a standard method. Incipient witness or you have the active
0:21:19   material deposition. See, use a lady. You deposit platinum palladium, rhodium atheneum. Onda fell
0:21:27   out or you have under coats so you can deposit an ale de layer or maybe a mixed metal oxide or nox
0:21:36   side onto the base support and then use a standard method like incipient. Went this to deposit
0:21:42   tractor material. Or use a combination of a lbi methods to build your catalysts from the bottom up,
0:21:51   which also we're now. So the benefits you're looking for in chrysalis IHS or the durability long
0:21:57   lifetime having a higher selectivity and higher yield to the desired product so that you have less
0:22:06   separations in your processes and more energy efficiency on then activity, which will also increase
0:22:13   yield of the desired product. So as I mentioned in my title, this process intensification is a goal
0:22:22   of chemical manufacturing so that you will of lower energy usage and higher production of the most
0:22:28   desired product that they're increasing your selectivity yields decreasing the amount of separations
0:22:35   that you need to do in the process. I'm a chemical engineer. Background process, design and process
0:22:42   controls part of what we think about what you need. Palace.
0:22:48   So I'm gonna point out six different review articles here that I recommend people go look at if you
0:22:57   have not looked at them before on the 1st 1 is with Jeff Ulam You'll just on Britain's Prince Um,
0:23:05   there three great experts in Ailed de Jeff Eelam as ah recalling bars forged Nano He recently
0:23:15   purchased a meeting this system So they have that at Argonne National Lab Um, for some of the dough
0:23:23   is that they're do it. And, um e next one is this catalyst design with Atomic Layer Deposition. It
0:23:31   was Foshan 2015 another great reference or all of the different things that have been done with a
0:23:38   lobbying group. Al Assist, I'm Here's another line with Jeff Young and Peter Stare at Northwestern
0:23:44   on June jumping Liu, who was also it has another review paper here and a lot of work for alien
0:23:52   analysis. So bottom up, synthesis dimension that before and we'll talk
0:24:01   um, it's nano engineering. Petr genus catalysts on the Stacy events of this was from Stanford and
0:24:10   this review article for cows designed to be a selective atomic layer deposition and Tom scale
0:24:16   engineering of metal oxides for interfaces. So again, with something Luke. So there's two reasons to
0:24:24   do a lot for analysis. It can be as a tool for fundamental science, which typically will not make it
0:24:30   to industrial processes and then industrial processes. So those three different ways of doing ailed
0:24:37   he and combination for a guilty could tell assists, commerce, Active material deposition, the
0:24:43   overcoats in the under coats in our opinion, a fortune. You know, the active material deposition in
0:24:49   the still rate. Great tool for fundamental science. But it is not yet to the point for an industrial
0:24:55   process. Um, whereas Thea, under coats and overcoats, are much closer to an industrial process,
0:25:01   having an A level control. I'm at an industrial scale. So there are opportunities here, though, to
0:25:08   blur the lines and bring some of those under coats and over coating technologies back to ports,
0:25:13   fundamental science and with time and effort, there will be opportunities for that active material
0:25:20   deposition to transition to being an opportunity for an end of industrial process. The fourth thing
0:25:28   that I want to bring up here is area selected, lt, or you're controlling where maybe your act, that
0:25:35   material is on support. Uh, that has an opportunity to become an industrial process if you can
0:25:42   increase the selected.
0:25:47   So after metal deposition this is some work that we did at forging Nano for palladium deposition in
0:25:53   comparison to a baseline Lincoln incipient wetness deposition. So this history room here is showing
0:25:59   the particle size distribution. Um, so ale de will get you very tight, narrow distribution of
0:26:06   particle size. But the incipient witness can do really well. So there's some added costs that may
0:26:13   not benefit enough to need Teoh ale de of the active material of platinum palladium.
0:26:24   So some areas where theory, uh, can become reality and may actually be beneficial. Are these course
0:26:31   up or shell structures? And here is an example eso with lady man, platinum or shell materials. The
0:26:40   opposition of the metal, um, well, actually preferentially go to the metal surface. So your energy
0:26:47   differences a materials that will always go to the lowest energy state. So sometimes you can
0:26:54   selectively deposit material where you might want it to form these or shell structures. So these two
0:27:02   examples and bottom So this is from one of those review papers can have an oxide that's different
0:27:09   from your support oxide, which can change your selectivity. You can deposit around material again.
0:27:17   This all goes to what you're depositing and what you're depositing onto. The combination of those
0:27:23   things going to the lowest energy entropy state pulling that that's what you're going to get. And
0:27:30   then depending on what conditions you take over here, this is an overcoat material and actually
0:27:37   showing that overcoat on the palladium here. So bringing those back right now poor shell structure,
0:27:47   great fundamental science. It may not be industrially relevant. It, um, overcoats. Those were
0:27:53   getting much closer to being the mastery of industrially relevant callous.
0:28:01   So the area selective that position this is this was in the review paper, a zealous. Here's the
0:28:08   reference Teoh the original work. So this is taking pristine graphing, making some all tied, um
0:28:17   sites and then depositing palladium onto those specific sites so you can get almost a single site
0:28:24   palladium reaction. The opportunity for this is high selectivity so you can get high heeled to a
0:28:30   single desired product. Um, and eliminate secondary reactions in your street. So this will improve,
0:28:39   um, your overall process economics, and potentially be an opportunity for commercialization.
0:28:49   I said on that ale de treasure map of pork analysis, photo catalysis. So this is a bottom up
0:28:58   synthesis. I'm taking carbon nano tube and doing a complete a LTE processing deposition of platinum,
0:29:05   attaining the oxide and removing the carbon nanotube and depositing cobalt oxide all in a of the
0:29:12   steps and then looking at the hydrogen evolution. Um, so you can get really interesting great
0:29:20   results with failed e and every step being LD in a bottom up, sent synthesis. Um, but that may not
0:29:28   be economically viable. And so that's something that we look at a four channel.
0:29:36   I'm going to review my own work. My last name was Van Norman. This is from the University of
0:29:43   Colorado Boulder, where I did fisher tropes synthesis with a nail de palace. So it was a cobalt, um,
0:29:51   a position. It was metallic position of kobol so background on Fisher Trump synthesis. It is a
0:29:57   structure sensitive reaction. So your yield of product or your conversion of carbon monoxide, bishop,
0:30:05   census ticks, comics and hydrogen and makes synthetic oil. So if you look at that conversion and
0:30:12   part monoxide, her amount of cobalt, you have a P around 7 to 10 animators, um, on everything that
0:30:21   has been shown for the last 100 years of research and Fisher trope in comparison Teoh ale de and
0:30:29   increasing the number of cycles of cobalt deposited in a metallic method. So that was a lot of seen
0:30:37   and hydrogen. Um, with one cycle, your within the same turnovers are yields per Coval here that you
0:30:47   would get for a normal Fisher drops emphasis. Have a list. But if you increase those numbers of
0:30:53   cycles to a four and eight, cycles were much higher than anything that was any ever reported before.
0:31:01   In fact, it's ah, three times higher, then the highest efficiency had a similar conversion of carbon
0:31:08   oxide and selectivity. And that's important to be selecting points that have conversion and
0:31:13   selectivity similar eso that we're not comparing erroneous points.
0:31:22   So like I said, we're making synthetic oil from carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Mainly it makes a lot
0:31:28   of water. Really, they should call it a water production in action. Um, so again, this is that same
0:31:33   data. So it's a structure sensitive reaction. Once you get up to 7 to 10 mana meters, turnover
0:31:39   frequency stabilizes. I'm not using any of those other about atoms that are interior to the particle.
0:31:48   So, you know, if we bring in the ail data, the one psycho catalyst looks like it's very, very small
0:31:55   nanoparticles, and in fact, they are there around one nanometer, just kind of one would expect. But
0:32:02   if we look at the eight cycle catalyst and here is the error, bars are much higher than anything. I
0:32:08   turn over frequency than you would expect to see. So the very my peachy. Towards the end, we looked
0:32:17   at some other studies that actually look a single crystal comparison. So they took a tungsten single
0:32:26   crystal in an ultra high vacuum chamber. I'm deposited cobalt as a metallic onto that surface and
0:32:33   then transferred it over to a reaction chamber and looked at the turn over frequency with increasing
0:32:39   temperature. So when we plot our cobalt, it'll de catalysts on here. The one cycle is very low
0:32:47   turnover frequency that we expect for very small nanoparticles and the eight cycle cobalt is up here
0:32:54   within the error on these the air bars for that kind of a frequency study. Um, well, within the
0:33:01   error of their turn over frequency. So it appears that the cobalt was depositing more is a single
0:33:07   crystal form. And what we saw on surfaces is that you actually have very small nanoparticles. But
0:33:15   you have these cursed ill and surfaces as well. That's likely the some of the air. Some of the areas
0:33:20   some of the cobalt was depositing as a single crystal on. I'm not support.
0:33:29   So I'm the transition now. Two overcoats under coats and overcoats when I was at the end of my feet.
0:33:36   Studio is doing an RPG project. We actually have looked at the commercial viability of that Fisher
0:33:42   trope synthesis reaction on what we determined is that even though we improved the Fisher shops
0:33:48   synthesis E sing gas production was not my made the entire process no viable. So I'm actually gonna
0:33:58   highlight here where dry reforming of methane can be improved by. Lt. This is, um, this paper from
0:34:07   the University of Pennsylvania State. Um, here's the reference. So it has a calcium tight, neat ale
0:34:17   de layer and nickel deposited by incipient witness. So same nickel deposition on both. Just a nail d
0:34:25   layer here. So the l. D. When exposed to methane did not have this carbon nanotube or carbon whisker
0:34:34   formation, which with on a standard catalyst and dry reforming of methane, you will have the nickel
0:34:42   actually pushed off of the surface. And people react so much that you fill up your reactor with
0:34:48   carbon nanotubes, carbon whiskers that it will plug the reactor. Um, with that ale de undercoat, you
0:34:57   can actually shut off that coking formation and be able to operate consistently without harp
0:35:06   information. Without that, you have a consistent carve information to the area on what that looks
0:35:12   like. Are these carbon nanotubes here? Um, without a lady. And here is with ailed de, Do you know
0:35:19   how that to operation?
0:35:25   So an over coating This is a platinum catalyst. This work was actually also done at the University
0:35:32   of Colorado. Boulder abrasion Will yang. He has an 11 was there are known Well, eso you have a
0:35:39   partner Panelist with an overcoat here and aluminum oxide overcoat and then without an overcoat and
0:35:47   he took those different catalysts, six different catalysts here and exposed them to increasing
0:35:52   temperatures. You're in four hours and looked at the centering of the plateau so you can stabilize
0:35:59   your platinum. I having an overcoat so you can reduce the amount is over time. If you're gonna
0:36:05   operate a 600 degrees Celsius, you have to have more platinum there to have same activity at the end
0:36:11   of life. Then you would. And if you have an overcoat on the material,
0:36:20   So another example with overcoats here, um, the study in 2012 and that fortune Anna, we actually are
0:36:29   doing similar work to to this. Um so you have a palladium Panelist than an overcoat again of alumina?
0:36:37   They make my these micro pores cracking e overcoat afterwards to allow exposure to the catalyst. So
0:36:46   this is oxidative gee, hydrogenation of ethics, um, ethylene. And
0:36:54   so it has the initial without the overcoat levels here. And then you stabilized the production over
0:37:05   time so that you can perform much longer, Um, as well as, ah, higher selectivity. So, as I mentioned,
0:37:13   beginning in a in the title of this be
0:37:18   process, intensification is increasing selectivity and yield as well as increasing your durability
0:37:25   of your caplis. This is a really great example of ale de increasing your process intensification and
0:37:35   as a industrial relevant application. And actually, we are working with commercial partner. So this
0:37:43   is now work, um, at Fortunato with partners that we have worked with that seven Northwest National
0:37:48   labs of Enrile. I'm specifically Amy and Derek there, and Johnson Matthey said this was a bio
0:37:57   chemical conversion. So iconic acid to a depict acid. Um, over here on the right is the publication
0:38:04   or bio based David Cassidy.
0:38:08   So we did an overcoat of five cycles of alumina onto a palladium on Titania Catalyst. One of the
0:38:17   questions is is ailed de uniformly deposited throughout or structure. So this data here is showing
0:38:25   that the alumina throughout a poor structure is a positive uniformly is long as you are operating
0:38:34   within a nail the window and you let it run to completion. You will get deposition everywhere, how
0:38:40   it works.
0:38:43   So here is thesis, um, of the data. So this is for the regeneration reuse of the catalysts of that
0:38:51   blue increasing data as a fresh catalyst with out an overcoat and here is no overcoat. And after
0:39:01   five thermal treatments or regeneration, say of a significant drop in that conversion or your
0:39:07   productivity of the catalyst over time and if you re generate it and this blew a green and orange is
0:39:16   a fresh with an overcoat, and after those same five thermal treatments, you have the same conversion
0:39:24   over time. So that is, being able to maintain your catalyst with your regeneration is one of the
0:39:33   benefits of overcoats. So the other benefit here, for this example was that we could actually stop
0:39:41   leaching of palladium off of the surface. This is a very big advantage as well. So you're not losing
0:39:49   your active material to the process.
0:39:54   On this is the same study. Same work, a thes thermal treatments at 700 degrees C. So this is showing
0:40:03   similar to National Yang's work with platinum that this is for palladium and showing the centering
0:40:10   So 700 c for four hours, palladium centers without an overcoat versus with an overcoat, you maintain
0:40:17   the dispersed leading on surface. And because you're maintaining that dispersion, you're actually
0:40:23   maintaining your reactive
0:40:27   final. Um uh, study work. But I want to point out that we're doing it for Russia. Nano is an
0:40:34   overcoat on platinum. So this one is a little bit interesting because we're doing alumina oxide
0:40:41   overcoats onto aluminum oxides support. It's a little bit of a complication that you're depositing a
0:40:49   onto A, but there actually is some difference between an ale de aluminum oxide versus a support
0:40:56   aluminum oxide. We hope to have some of that information ready to share. That publication will be
0:41:03   outstanding. Our partners on this work our Jim, um Zang Lu at Argonne National Lab and Lee Abrams
0:41:11   primarily leaving brooms at GOP. And that's in it is manufacturing office funded project.
0:41:21   So just gonna reiterate again for fortune, Anna, we focus on commercialization, so we sell equipment.
0:41:29   We encourage people to be developing a LTE. Technology is not only into Telesis, that is one of the
0:41:36   our, uh, education areas. I'm excited about eso. We sell tools like for me, theus or people to do
0:41:43   research and develop technologies so that then they can come back to us and we can scale it in
0:41:48   systems like Morpheus or serious here. Legal's, um so all of our equipment that is available seller,
0:41:56   lab scale systems I mentioned Prometheus. Well, Sava. Thena But Pandora, the official product
0:42:02   release will be coming out very soon. If you're interested in commercialisation, um, there's some
0:42:09   opportunities about Pandora will be announcing Please reach out to me about that. And then our
0:42:16   commercial scale systems lead those Marcus in Searcy and so, uh, origin. And so we have the world's
0:42:24   experts in part of Li l. D. In the commercial systems to back it up and the commercialization
0:42:30   programs.