0:00:01   Hello. My name is Madison Martinez and I am a battery Scientists with the nano coating technology
0:00:06   company Forge Nano. Thank you for coming to my virtual poster on small coatings with big benefits
0:00:11   enabling next time performance in battery materials through Atomic Layer Deposition. In case you
0:00:17   haven't heard of Forge Nano before, we are a small but quickly growing company operating out of
0:00:21   Colorado, and we aim to become a world leader in particle nano coating technology to create safer
0:00:26   and more efficient products. L. D is a platform technology that can service many existing and new
0:00:33   applications from textiles to catalysts and more. But today I will be focusing in on energy storage
0:00:39   and, more specifically, lithium ion batteries. The lithium ion battery chemistry that I will be
0:00:46   highlighting today is lithium cobalt oxide or L C O. So why focus on Elsie Oh well, CEO Catholics
0:00:53   are used in more than 90% of all consumer electronic batteries, like in your cell phone, as well as
0:01:01   it's used in 15% off all batteries used globally, and this trend is not expected to change in the
0:01:08   next decade or so. So L C O has a lot of benefits, which is what helps make it so popular on easy
0:01:15   synthesis, high energy density, high specific energy, stable charge and discharge voltage and
0:01:19   excellent cycling stability. However, there are still some limitations of L CIO that are listed here
0:01:26   on the right, and L D can help address these limitations. Today I'm going to focus on the relatively
0:01:33   low cycle life of L CIO, where commercial devices are set between 205 100 cycles a supposed to the
0:01:41   longer life of like R N C M's like 800,000 cycles. And the fact that L C O has instability as we
0:01:49   increase voltages. Um, so L d can help us address some of these.
0:01:57   Before we could talk about the benefits of LD, though, I want to address the optimization process we
0:02:01   have to go through when we cope with L. D. We have found the body is not a one size fits all
0:02:06   solution. We have to optimize our process depending on each base material and their composition, as
0:02:11   well as what electrochemical conditions these materials may be subject to. Some variables we can
0:02:16   play with in the optimization process are coating thickness coding, chemistry and processing
0:02:22   conditions. The this experiment to the right shows a single coding chemistry with varying
0:02:26   thicknesses on L C o. These cells were cycled from 3 to 4.4 volts at 0.5 c charge rate and one see
0:02:34   discharge rate. The blue is the pristine, and the red and gray traces represent two thicknesses of
0:02:39   ale decoding. In this case, the red trace is are optimized coating thickness for this coating
0:02:45   chemistry and based material. When we look at overall lifetime, which is reached when we hit 80% of
0:02:50   the initial capacity, the A L D optimized L C O increases lifetime by 67%. It also increases the
0:02:57   stability of the L C O throughout the cycle. Life as we can see in the differential capacity plots
0:03:03   on the bottom, where the pristine material peaks are smooth dramatically from cycle five to cycle
0:03:08   600 while the features air more well retained and sharpen the l d optimized L c o suggesting
0:03:14   stability
0:03:17   going back to the discharge capacity plot weaken. See that both of the decoded samples show
0:03:22   improvement in the cycle life of the cells. However, even with our best the red there's still this
0:03:28   benefit still comes at the cost of losing about 6% of the beginning of life capacity for the best
0:03:34   ale decoded, which is common in, um, el CEO, we have found.
0:03:43   So here I am showing how we can further optimize ourselves to address the capacity loss that we saw
0:03:48   in the previous side. We have found that we can balance the effects of coating the cathode by
0:03:52   pairing the coded cathode with a coded an ode. So you start with the pristine in the blue, and then
0:03:59   we have our first iteration, which is the coated cathodes in red. And then our dual coated optimize
0:04:04   cell is in green, which you can see on the left, does not suffer from the 6% capacity loss at the
0:04:10   beginning of life and maintains higher capacity throughout the lifetime and a longer lifetime than
0:04:17   the pristine.
0:04:22   So then, if we raised the upper cut off voltage from 4.4 to 4.48 volts, um, our formation capacity
0:04:29   increases from 180 million Powers program to 210 million powers program, and the lifetime shortened
0:04:36   significantly for the pristine material, but less so for the decoded, which still achieves 200
0:04:42   cycles. You can also see in the bottom plot of resistance that the pristine material maintains the
0:04:50   higher resistance during durability cycling than the decoded material does. But this kind of general
0:04:55   resistance plot doesn't tell us a lot about what's going on within the cell. So as we employed E i s
0:05:00   or electrochemical impedance spectroscopy PTO investigate this further
0:05:08   while the I s can tell us a lot about the detailed resistance is in the cell, I am just gonna focus
0:05:12   on the S e I layer resistance I e the width of the first semi circles in the Spectra on the left. As
0:05:20   we elevate the upper cut off voltage, there will be an increase inside reactions with the
0:05:24   electrolyte and thus s C I thickening here. We're showing how L d optimized L. C O has lowered
0:05:31   overall lowered Overall, the FBI layer resistance in the cell as well as the overall growth of S E.
0:05:38   I layer resistance over the lifetime of the cell.
0:05:43   So in the end, we're excited by the improvements that L D can do to our base material or our state
0:05:50   of the art L C O We can increase the lifetime of batteries of L CIO cycled at around 4.4 bolts by
0:05:58   67%. And we are able thio, uh, get longer lifetimes and improved resistance growth at elevated
0:06:07   voltages and just lowered resistance overall in L D cells. Thank you so much for listening to my
0:06:15   poster presentation. I would like to acknowledge my team. My company forged Nano, our collaborators
0:06:22   at Colorado School of Mines. If you have any technical questions or business enquiries here, the
0:06:26   context for you for that. Thank you so much.