0:00:03   Hi, my name is Daniel Higgs and I'm with forge nano. Thank you so much for having me to give this
0:00:09   presentation today at the SBC Tech on 2021 and thank you also to the Spc Foundation who gave me
0:00:16   student scholarship several years back to attend in providence Rhode island. So I'm here today to
0:00:23   talk to you about L. D. Cap, which is R L. D. Encapsulation of wafers, devices and objects. So let's
0:00:31   get started.
0:00:36   So today I'm going to talk about L. D. Cap technology, a bit of general background information, Then
0:00:42   quickly talk through two case studies and then the equipment that we offer that provides this L. D.
0:00:48   Cap technology. So first of all, what is L. D. Cap? Well L. D. Cap is our proprietary encapsulation
0:00:56   technology that uses atomic layer deposition, atomic layer deposition or A L. D. Is a layer by layer,
0:01:03   gas phase sequential self limiting coding technique, very similar to CVD but better
0:01:13   in terms of the chemistries that can be deposited with the gold. There are a bunch of different ones.
0:01:18   Feel free to go to atomic limits dot com and check out their L. D. Tool to see if the chemistry
0:01:25   you're interested in is listed there. We do a lot of these, we do a lot of metal oxides, medals,
0:01:31   night rides and we also do some phosphates and some organic materials as well.
0:01:38   So L. D. Cap is our encapsulation technology that uses atomic layer deposition um to encapsulate
0:01:45   wafers devices and objects that need to be exposed to harsh environments. So the uses for that are
0:01:52   encapsulation of semiconductor wafers for applications such as R. F. Power or antenna or display
0:01:58   applications such as micro oh LED or micro LED wafers. And this is for markets that include military,
0:02:06   automotive and aerospace. Mostly also RLD cap provides encapsulation of display panels and objects
0:02:14   for medical devices. PCBs for consumer electronics, automotive display and other items that require
0:02:22   protection from moisture and oxygen.
0:02:26   So here on the right we have an image of our el cap coding. It's a multi layer coating and this
0:02:33   Scale bar down here is 500 nm. So the total thickness for this Specific images, about 200 nm. And
0:02:40   this coding is really quite impressive. It's a flexible ceramic coating. It can be deposited down to
0:02:46   80 C. So it's it's applicable for um back end wafer processes for example encapsulation of dice
0:02:56   wafers or other things like that where there may be organic containing components lying around the L.
0:03:04   D. Cap provides an ultra low water vapor permeability. Um and 38 C. That's measured at less than 10
0:03:12   of the -10 which is ridiculously good. Our coding passes the mil STD 88 3 E environmental endurance
0:03:21   testing at the 290 me respect. It's a versatile coding. It's not invasive and it can be used in
0:03:30   addition to or in replacement of other encapsulation technologies to provide for better performance.
0:03:36   The cap can be used at the wafer level to replace silicon nitride cap preservation or the dye or
0:03:42   package levels. And it can also be tailored with specific keynesian properties too result in
0:03:50   extremely good adhesion to different materials. And in fact we've been able to get the lesions that
0:03:54   are similar to that of galvanised zinc on steel which is ridiculously yet. So case study one um is L.
0:04:03   D. Cap for our devices with Raytheon Technologies. So the problem was that the silicon nitride PCV
0:04:10   they were using was both too expensive um and not high enough performing. Um It was About .8 microns
0:04:18   and it just was not achieving the mil spec required. So the goal was to use atomic letter position
0:04:24   specifically R. L. D. Cap technology in the mimic wafer fabrication process to enable lower cost
0:04:32   hermetic packaging of their devices. So the intended outcome was that we performed work under title
0:04:40   3 to optimize and qualify the L. D. Cap for two of the Galley Marks Night Processes for production
0:04:47   at Raytheon's facility in and over. So let's take a look at what happened. So we tested the standard
0:04:56   existing technology against R. O. D. Cap technology both under The same conditions which were 96
0:05:02   hours with a hast or an extremely harsh accelerated testing. Um of 130 C and 85 relative humidity.
0:05:11   For those of you that are familiar with accelerated testing, it's quite common to do in 85 85. Um
0:05:18   And in terms of how we relate to that we would be about 1000 hours of 85 85 is equivalent to 130 85.
0:05:29   So in terms of what happened, well the existing tech completely felt this this very harsh test. Um
0:05:35   in fact 99 of the feds failed when we did the old cap Technology ranging from 10 nm to 200 nm. We
0:05:45   mostly passed. I mean we had a 97 pass rate or higher than 97 pass or in other words Look at that is
0:05:52   to say less than three failure. In addition to that, the L. D. Cap had benefits such as lower
0:05:58   dielectric loading, better fat performance. We were able to get a two x tighter tolerance on the
0:06:04   capacitors because the l decoding was so can formulate thin and there was less variation in the
0:06:09   actual R. F. Properties of the fats, which is also a great benefit of the L decoding here in the
0:06:17   table, you can see a few of the failure rates for the optical feds Andy bean fete with the silicon
0:06:23   nitride standard existing tech compared with the L. D. Cap.
0:06:30   So the second case study is a handicap as a parallelize Caroline replacement. So let's take a look
0:06:36   at this. So the problem here is that many medical devices um and PCBs and other objects need to
0:06:45   withstand quite harsh conditions in terms of uh saline conditions or high moisture conditions or
0:06:51   high temperature conditions. And Caroline is a standard coding that is often used to protect such
0:06:57   devices. But in many cases it just isn't quite good enough. It doesn't quite provide the performance
0:07:02   that is required for certain applications. So the goal of this project was to use A L. D. In place
0:07:08   of Caroline to protect devices from moisture and oxygen. And this has applications in the military,
0:07:14   automotive and other markets such as medical. So the intended outcome here was to beat the
0:07:20   specifications of Caroline and produce a much more robust encapsulation technology for the air
0:07:26   stringent requirements of various devices. So when we compare the various properties of hailed cap
0:07:36   Caroline and your thing coding, you can start to see that the L. D. Cap technology really shines.
0:07:42   It's just amazing to be honest. Um The L. D. Cap compared with Caroline has a much lower W. V. Tr
0:07:49   and it's not just a little bit lower. We're talking many orders of magnitude lower. Um Here's the
0:07:54   number here, it's about 0.83 for Carolyn C. And it's less than 10 14% of minus 10 for L. D. Cap.
0:08:02   That's ridiculously good. Um Also the oxygen transmission rate or the oxygen permeability is much
0:08:08   lower for the L. D. Cap again by many orders of magnitude. Um The L. D. Cap can operate at a much
0:08:16   higher temperature because it's a metal oxide coding compared with Caroline's or organic coding. Um
0:08:21   You're not limited there and in fact the L. D. Cap coding can withstand temperatures above 1500 C
0:08:30   which makes it attractive certain high temperature applications as well. Additionally high heat
0:08:35   dissipation, lower thickness and higher dielectric constants are benefits available cap over
0:08:39   paranoid.
0:08:41   So in terms of the equipment for L. D. Cap We offer three main types of equipment. There is theatre
0:08:47   which is for R. And D. L. Single wafers, Apollo which is for production in a cassette to cassette,
0:08:54   automatic robotic production system and helios which is our system for production of the cap haunted
0:09:02   panels such as display panels or large objects or batch processing of multiple small object.
0:09:12   So efficiency is everything. Um here the main point is that most of the equipment manufacturers have
0:09:21   equipment that is inefficient. Um It uses more chemical than is technically necessary and it's
0:09:28   slower than than it could be. And this can lead to much thicker coatings deposited on the side walls
0:09:34   which can be leading to shorter maintenance intervals and higher maintenance costs and generally a
0:09:39   higher total cost of ownership for the user. So our solution is to use a few things that other
0:09:48   people don't. Um The first is a proprietary gas handling setup. We don't have details today about
0:09:55   that. A lot of that is confidential information but suffice to say that we move the gases in a very
0:10:01   novel way that enables them to get in and out very quickly while having enough time to do the L. D.
0:10:08   Reaction. We also have a lot of custom components that enable us to do that gas handling and we'll
0:10:13   get into those on the next few sides here. So when you combine that, you end up with one of the
0:10:19   lowest total cost of ownership systems um with very high chemical utilization and much longer
0:10:26   maintenance intervals. But the key here is that we're able to do all of this without sacrificing any
0:10:34   of the l decoding quality.
0:10:38   So in terms of components that enable this extremely fast low maintenance, low total cost of
0:10:45   ownership process and systems, we have several several key things. First the millisecond valves
0:10:52   which are high speed valves um secondly the high purity process controllers will cover both of those
0:10:58   on the next slide and then also L'D sources integrated abatement, hailed the manifold that's custom
0:11:05   and many other small details that add up to be significant differences and differentiators with our
0:11:12   equipment. And as I mentioned, we do this without compromising quality. So on the bottom here you
0:11:18   can see the wafer to wafer reproducibility and we have very high CP and CPK numbers. If you're not
0:11:23   familiar with those, the higher the better. Um, and Then within a way for uniformity. Again, we're
0:11:30   good. Typically anything over 1.7 or so is good there
0:11:36   on the left here is a small chart you can, you can kind of see if you squint closely enough. Um, but
0:11:41   basically this chart is saying that our systems have an extremely fast purge, um, and they have a
0:11:48   very high chemical utilization.
0:11:53   So as I mentioned, the two main components that enable our equipment to be so competitive are the
0:11:59   valves, we make these ourselves, these have a less than one millisecond response time which is much
0:12:06   faster than the next best available valves that you can get from from companies in the market. Um
0:12:13   And also we've tested these valves for over a 100 million cycles. That that is 100 million opening
0:12:21   and closing of these valves and that was at 20 hertz and that is the number of cycles we can get to
0:12:27   before the valve needs to be refurbished and it can be refurbished, it doesn't need to be replaced,
0:12:32   it can just be taken apart, cleaned, refurbished to put back together secondly, the process
0:12:37   controllers that we have really are replacements from mass flow controllers. They're much better and
0:12:43   there are many details even I don't understand here but suffice to say that combining our pressure
0:12:49   controllers with our valves enable us to have the best equipment.
0:12:55   So to summarize my talk um L. D cap technology is a 14 and a proprietary process that is replacing
0:13:02   silicon nitride in parallel encodings for various applications. For now, systems are the lowest
0:13:08   total cost of ownership systems. That means the lowest dollar per wafer or lowest dollar per object
0:13:14   costs throughout the lifetime of the equipment. And we account for absolutely everything that you
0:13:19   would ever need to spend money on in terms of maintenance, scheduled or otherwise facilities, labor,
0:13:25   materials, Capex depreciation, everything's in there. So if you're interested in hearing more about
0:13:32   these systems or wildcat process, Please reach out to us at sales at 4th nano.com. So with that, I'd
0:13:40   like to thank you so much for listening and thank you again to the organizers of this great
0:13:43   conference and I look forward to seeing you in person next year. Thank you so much.