0:00:03   Okay. Good morning. And welcome everybody to our LD Basics seminar today. We want to thank you all
0:00:10   for joining are similar Taking the time out of your day to spend a little bit of time with us. As
0:00:15   today's living, our title is stated. This is a very basic overview of atomic layer deposition. So we
0:00:21   will be covering some technical details. But it really is meant to be an overview and an
0:00:26   introduction to our technology and how it's used. We're gonna be conducting Maurin Death technical
0:00:32   webinars in the future. So if you're interested in those and you haven't done so yet, please visit
0:00:36   our website at for geno dot com and subscribe to our newsletter. That way we can keep you in the
0:00:41   loop before all of the future. Webinars. So with that, we're going to go ahead and jump right into a
0:00:47   little bit about our company, As you can see for Tana was founded in 2013. We are a 30 employees,
0:00:55   strong company. We reside currently in a 1500 square meter facility in Lewisville, Colorado, which
0:01:01   if you're ever in the area, we highly suggest you come by and pass it is that we love to show you
0:01:05   around and you can see the technology actually working firsthand, and we're going to be having a
0:01:10   massive expansion here in 2020. So we're looking forward to showing our new facility as soon as
0:01:14   they're ready as well. As you can see, our mission is quite simple. It's to become the world leader
0:01:19   in innovative material solutions. So we're already on a great trajectory towards that mission, and
0:01:24   we hope that our partnerships with you will continue that trajectory for a little bit about some
0:01:30   recent news that you may have seen we recently secured on our continuing our series of investments.
0:01:36   We've secured about $18 million from phenomenal partners like Volkswagen, LG Technology Ventures,
0:01:42   Mitsui Kenzo Coup and FBI investments were very, very excited. It's a proof in the pudding that our
0:01:47   technology is not only relevant, also scalable to manufacturing a little bit about myself. My name
0:01:53   is Mike Talarico. I'm the marketing lead here, Fortune Nano and essentially my role is to help
0:01:58   educate our customers about the potentials of ale de and help them discover how l d come work for
0:02:04   their particular applications, as you can see, In my experience, I am not an alien expert. So that's
0:02:09   why I've invited Stacey and Daniel here to help us out. I have about 15 years of marketing
0:02:15   experience, along with 10 years mark international marketing management and 15 years of event
0:02:20   production planning. So I enjoy long walks on the beach. No, actually, I enjoy drawing, sculpting
0:02:25   and pretty much anything creative. And then also spending time with my lovely wife and my family.
0:02:30   We're gonna pass it off to Stacy, who is one of our in house resident led experts, to tell you a
0:02:34   little bit of herself. Thanks. So I'm Stacy Milton. I'm the applications engineer for business
0:02:40   development here. Fortune Anna. I worked with potential customers. Teoh determine the viability of
0:02:48   their technology for ailed de both technically and for the commercial markets that they're
0:02:53   interested in. I do that through using the lean launch process that I learned at I corps program. I
0:03:00   was the principal investigator of our pit he project using a LTE for Potala sis to make player gas
0:03:08   into more oil. I have over 10 years experience in a Leone powders. My PhD is in chemical engineering
0:03:14   from the University of Colorado, Boulder with a Weimer. My MBA is from the University of Colorado,
0:03:20   Denver. I enjoy recreational aviation, flying with my husband and our dog, and
0:03:30   I'm Stacey. My name is Daniel. Pigs on I. I am here to work with customers on people like yourself
0:03:38   to help develop proofs of concept or the way to commercial products, mostly under joint development
0:03:44   type relationships. I, like Stacy, have a PhD in atomic Layer deposition at about 10 years
0:03:51   experience in a L D or so molecular layer deposition in a little bit of atomic Larry etchings as
0:03:57   well, several inventions. I've been involved with several start up companies. I also have my PhD
0:04:04   from the University of Colorado Boulder in Colorado in the U. S. A. And that was with a professor
0:04:11   called Professor Steven. George and I enjoy gardening, cooking, traveling. I speak more languages,
0:04:17   and I really enjoyed playing the jazz trumpet. I look forward to talking to you.
0:04:24   Okay. Thank you, Daniel. So we're going to go over today's agenda briefly. We're going to have Stacy
0:04:31   start off talking about a lady specifically on powders. Turn telling you a little bit more about
0:04:35   that Led technology and how it works from there, she's going to go into a little bit about a lady at
0:04:40   scale. So how could be implemented on manufacturing level from there, Will invite annual backup to
0:04:46   talk to you about some example applications. And then, lastly, he will talk to you a little bit
0:04:50   about how you can work with for genetic. And at the very end, we will open this up to a question and
0:04:55   answer for I do want to note real briefly before we move forward in any of your having any technical
0:04:59   difficulties. We have had some reports of folks having the spinning wheel. Just refresh your browser
0:05:04   window, and that should clear that up. Sometimes this technology is a little long, but simple.
0:05:09   Refresh Your browser should allow that to refresh. I love this basic.
0:05:16   All right, so thank you. I thank you all for joining us today to talk about a lady in basic. So I'm
0:05:22   gonna talk to you about a Dion powders and then the scalability of that process and specifically
0:05:28   here for Geno. So starting out with the basics of ale de, uh, it is analogous to Brick Lane. You
0:05:37   like to use that analogy because it's very simple and easy. So looking at the dying around, we have
0:05:42   here of blue bricks with this nice little dip It we want to build up a structure or a wall, and we
0:05:48   want to bring in those green bricks. They have a nice little triable there that fits perfectly into
0:05:54   that. Did it. So you lay down one layer of bricks, and once you live down that layer, those green
0:05:59   bricks can't lay nicely to make a flat surface on those blue bricks. So take out the green bricks
0:06:06   and we introduce the blue bricks again, and that little did it fits perfectly onto those green
0:06:11   blocks. So once we've made that next layer of bricks, we've removed the blue bricks and go back and
0:06:19   forth between the green and the blue bricks, building up our structure So a lot d in chemistry look
0:06:28   similar to that, So it is a spontaneous, self limited gas days surface reaction as looking at
0:06:36   aluminum oxide deposition on the surface, there to half reactions similar to the bricklaying of the
0:06:43   green and the blue. You have try meth aluminum In the first half, reaction there reacts with
0:06:48   hydroxyl groups. On the surface, those hydroxy groups make nothing from the hydrogen on the height,
0:06:58   the surface group and then once all of those hydroxy groups have reacted, there's no longer any
0:07:03   space for track the tm a to react. So we personal reactor of the tm A and you're left with one
0:07:09   atomic layer of aluminum atoms with metal birds remaining on them in the second half of the reaction
0:07:15   of being in water to react with the metal groups that are remaining on the surface. And they
0:07:20   regenerate that hydra, the hydroxy group own surface, so that you can go back and then recycle again.
0:07:28   Someone's all of those methyl groups were gone. We purged the reactor and you start over building up
0:07:33   layer by layer controlled method to deposit aluminum oxide. This is one of the most simple reactions
0:07:40   to do. Most people know how this in familiar with they'll. Do you know how this reaction works? So
0:07:47   the timeline of Ale de started out with flats on so that the first commercial applications were for
0:07:55   thin film electroluminescent displays. That development was around the world, both in Vineland and
0:08:03   then some companies here in the US The technology was commercialized in the nineties with help from
0:08:09   DARPA and D o. D. But L. D was really used in the semiconductor industry to make microelectronics
0:08:16   scaled down. So in the nineties, that started and that industry took off in the two thousands, and
0:08:21   it's projected to hit $2.3 billion in 2023. That's really because the ability for a lady to enable
0:08:29   three D structures to further down size those microelectronics as we start to happen everywhere, not
0:08:38   just in your cell phone, but the Internet of things is coming. So um, area select avail. D will be
0:08:44   something really important for that on not a topic for today, but very interesting.
0:08:51   So there are lots of types of surface coatings that you can use. A lady is one of that that is most
0:08:58   controlled method of surface coatings, so let would face techniques are really great for thicker
0:09:05   films. So one option of liquid phase deposition would be incipient wetness that could be used for
0:09:10   analysis, which is my background. They could also use physical vapor, deposition or sputtering to
0:09:18   deposit different materials so you can get very good rates of deposition A material by sputtering so
0:09:24   you can get thick films very quickly, and that process is used in microelectronics industry. See
0:09:32   needy or chemical vapour. Deposition is analogous to atomic later deposition. It's a gas days
0:09:38   reaction, but it happens above the surface of that you're depositing onto, and it is line of sight
0:09:44   dependent, whereas ale de is not mine. Aside dependent, this plasma enhanced CBD a little bit better
0:09:52   than C V D. On its own, you can get a little bit hard dance or film and a little more control over
0:09:57   the film that you're coding but is still line of sight dependent. So what I mean by line of sight
0:10:02   dependent is a lady is able to deposit the same coating with intercourse material on the inner
0:10:09   surface as it does on the outer surface, so it doesn't have to see the surface that it's depositing
0:10:15   onto Ale de and MLT or molecular layer. Deposition are great for coatings that are hundreds of
0:10:23   nanometers or less, and that's really due to the time that it takes to deposit because you're
0:10:29   cycling back and forth between those half reactions.
0:10:34   So why don't we care about particle ale de while the surface of particles is where you get your
0:10:42   interaction with the environment that is around eso. If you want to make advanced materials and make
0:10:48   their behaviors change in the environment that you want to put them into, you need to change their
0:10:53   surface. Uh, so we can affect those materials by passive ating defects, making a barrier for
0:10:59   moisture oxygen resistance, which is really great for extreme environments, making them corrosion
0:11:07   resistant for putting them into solutions. Putting service factionalization onto the material that
0:11:14   chemical functionality, changing its optical properties or even changing its porosity at the
0:11:20   nanometer scale. So, really, we're doing surface engineering to make high performance for vets
0:11:26   products.
0:11:29   So we have to get asked what's possible with a lady? Well, pretty much the entire periodic table.
0:11:36   This chart here It comes from atomic limits dot com, and it is a wonderful resource to use to make
0:11:42   sure what you're thinking about is even possible. It's an open source resource. You go in and enter.
0:11:50   The researcher goes in and enters what they what they've been working on with the reference for
0:11:56   literature. It enters what the material is, what the precursors were, and then your reference as
0:12:03   what your conditions were, what you were depositing on. So a lady is possible for medals oxides and
0:12:10   I tried sulfides, Cellini ins, Telluride's apostates, organic materials, hybrids of all of those
0:12:18   really anything that you can think of just about eso that periodic table. The colors are very
0:12:24   important. If you look at platinum or palladium, that great box means that the metallic material has
0:12:31   been deposited. Those also have a blue box, which means the oxide has been deposited. The elements
0:12:37   with a green box means that nitride has been deposited, and if you have any further questions about
0:12:43   that, we can go for it later. So at fortune, you know we have not covered the entire periodic table
0:12:50   on. They're not all commercialized ble, but we have done a significant amount of work here in house
0:12:57   with our customers and for our internal research. Arliss translates down to metals oxides, and I
0:13:04   tried spot states, organic coatings, multi layers, lithium containing materials, which is important
0:13:12   for battery materials. We've deposited onto many different types of substrates, including all held
0:13:19   our classes powders, which is basically how material flows, including Anna materials and objects of
0:13:28   the chart porous and not for us.
0:13:33   S. O. L. D can deposit on to pretty much any material, and it will deposit informal and uniform
0:13:40   throughout the material, whether or not it is horse or non porous, spiritual, non spherical that if
0:13:48   it is trenched and has features all over able deposit on anywhere that there's a functional site to
0:13:54   react with on the next slide, we have examples of real materials that have failed e materials
0:14:03   deposited, so the image on the far left is a non, not poorest sphere, with five animator coating on
0:14:11   it. The middle image has two different materials. That's a multi layer deposited inside a trench. So
0:14:17   that's three differences in color illustration that coating that you're seeing or the two different
0:14:22   materials on the far right is platinum deposited onto oxide, which has differences in surface energy
0:14:30   toe that formation of nanoparticles is expected,
0:14:37   So the different coding types of this slide is to just show you the difference between a lady and a
0:14:42   liquid deposition technique. So the colored images on the top on the left have Syria deposited on
0:14:51   silicon dioxide or zirconia deposit on silicon dioxide by lt So the soldier method has non conform
0:15:01   all non uniformed deposition of Syria onto this this silicon dioxide, Where am L. D? You have a
0:15:07   uniform conform all deposition of that coating everywhere on particle on the right hand side, we're
0:15:13   just showing you a single particle with that coding all the way around and showing that coating is
0:15:19   uniforms the same all the way around.
0:15:23   So the timeline for particle ale de is about 15 years behind way frailty, which is really great for
0:15:30   anybody wanting to commercialize, because that's where we're at right now. And that's why to
0:15:35   convince you today and talk with you about or later so fluid eyes beds were introduced for particle
0:15:42   ale de in the nineties and they were brought up again in the two thousands at University of Colorado,
0:15:48   Boulder, and to research groups both Steve George and Al Weimer, which Daniel and I are both
0:15:53   graduates of each of those groups. Forge Nano took the acquired the I P from the university for a
0:15:59   semi continuous process in 2011 to look at the scale of an economic viability of part of Les lt.
0:16:10   So that was based on a fluid eyes bed, which we call temporal ale to your time based system, where
0:16:17   particles are kept within the reactor and the precursors are floating one at a time passed the
0:16:22   particles. There is filtration on this system to make sure that the particles stay within that
0:16:27   housing. And that's really important that when you're doing particle A l. D. You want to be using a
0:16:33   system that is meant for particles. If you're using a wafer tool, you can have particle loot
0:16:39   creation, or those small particles actually leave the reactor and your particle size distribution
0:16:45   changes from when you start to any end. Another issue can be that you if you have a boat of
0:16:51   particles in a way for tool, you may not actually get fusion of your precursor all the way through
0:16:57   that bit of particles, and you're not getting singing, holding on the top level of particles as you
0:17:02   do on the bottom. In a particle specific tool, you will get uniform coating on every particle within
0:17:09   that, so these reactors air very versatile For many different chemistries, however, they don't scale
0:17:15   for commercial production very well.
0:17:19   So Mike is going to switch to a video that shows you so lewd ization. So you know, we're talking
0:17:24   about not describe those two videos that you'll see. So there is a black, uh, powder being fluid
0:17:34   ized in the first video and then a white powder in second. So you see that powder mixing and moving.
0:17:42   And that is as the precursor is flowing up from the bottom through the bed and reacting all the
0:17:49   surface of those particles.
0:17:52   So when we switch over to our spatial system, we flipped that process on its head. So rather than
0:17:59   flow precursors through the reactor reactor, a batch of powder we flowed powder through the units
0:18:06   that have that precursor exposure. So this is less versatile once you change over, but you get too
0:18:13   much higher production rates and efficiencies and yield of your products. So this is where that
0:18:17   scalability of particle ale de can actually happen,
0:18:24   s We're gonna switch to another little video so you can see what we mean a little bit more on this.
0:18:29   The image on the left shows one single batch of powder moving through different. Zell's precursor
0:18:38   results said the red would be your a pre crease precursor and the blue would be your beak. Precursor
0:18:45   on the right shows what this looks like. A semi continuous process where one batch is continuously
0:18:52   followed by another batch. So within a given time segment, you always have production of a batch of
0:18:59   coded powder. So I hope that were convincing you so far that a LTE is a scalable process for powders
0:19:06   as far as cost. I have a little bit here, but we will talk more about that at the end. Eso during
0:19:13   our scale up process. Over the last 10 years, we've built prototypes and now to our commercial scale
0:19:21   system that's in our facility here in Colorado that you're welcome to come see. So we've scaled up
0:19:27   our process by 300 times from 72 kg per day up to the design half for 25 tons per day production.
0:19:35   Our current production has a 2.5 tons per day capacity and that the economics or cost of the
0:19:44   production of that coating costs per kilogram of powder that you're coating so that is the cost of
0:19:50   the coating itself onto the powder from the $1000 per kilogram down to less than a dollar per
0:19:58   kilograms. That's 1000 times reduction in the cost of production, with 300 times scale up in the
0:20:03   production capacity. So the way we move through that production, the roadmap for innovation of
0:20:12   advanced materials here in house with customers is to start out of the lab scale and some in system
0:20:20   similar to our Prometheus systems which are offer product for customers. If they want to do this
0:20:29   type of work on their own and generate their own, my peak that starts out at the MILLIGRAMS
0:20:33   kilograms scale once we've developed the material there, you know, works in their process well and
0:20:39   do the economic assessment. We move on to pilot scale testing. It tends to hundreds of kilograms
0:20:45   production per day. I'm sure that that product again works the same as it did from the lab and then
0:20:51   move on to commercial scale production with our Morpheus system, with the goal of selling that
0:20:57   commercial equipment to the end user, and that scales at hundreds of kilograms two tons of
0:21:04   production per day.
0:21:08   So again, the roadmap for particle ale de that's been in the research phase for a long time. But we
0:21:13   get fortunate have been working out scale up this process. And we're now with designs for 10,000
0:21:20   tons per year production. So this is a scalable process, an opportunity for everyone working in
0:21:27   these different research areas. We encourage you out. Look at the actual development because there
0:21:33   is a partner out there for you. Now, Daniel is gonna talk about the applications and how you work
0:21:39   with us. A fortune. Thank you, Stacey, for those of you still with us, thank you so much for joining
0:21:45   this webinar for a lady on the powders. If anyone is having issues with the video, please reload or
0:21:51   refresh your browser page. We've changed the Internet connection on our side of we've heard that
0:21:56   that has improved things. So if you have any questions, please just send us a message in the checked.
0:22:02   So I'm going to talk to you about a few specific example applications on how you can work with us if
0:22:07   you are so inclined.
0:22:10   So in terms of application space for ailed deal onto powders, any industry that uses powders could
0:22:17   benefit potentially from atomic layer depositions or surface modification off the chemistry on those
0:22:24   powders, we've worked in many, many different applications. But we focused currently on those top
0:22:29   five areas, which include energy storage so materials such as lithium ion battery, Catholic powders
0:22:36   or animal powders. We also work in Ca Tallis for Chemical Patel assistant. Also fuel cell. Potala,
0:22:44   SIS. We do some work in thermal fillers for thermal management within electronic components, and
0:22:50   then you do quite a lot of work in three D printing and other powder forming areas. What a. Some
0:22:55   work with absorbent and membranes. So today I'm going to just briefly cover a little bit more
0:23:01   information on the battery catalyst on three D printing.
0:23:08   So a lot to you. For batteries, this is an image. You see the reference here at the bottom if you'd
0:23:12   like to go and get that image for yourself. This image shows a lot of processes that can happen
0:23:18   during degradation off battery materials in a lithium ion battery with a liquid electrolyte. If you
0:23:25   can see it's a very complicated system, but there's two reasons we share this image. One is to show
0:23:31   that there's lots of different mechanisms of degradation. There's a metal leaching from one material
0:23:36   to another. That deposition of S E I formation, there's electrolyte degradation that is, changes in
0:23:43   crystal graphic structure and so on and so forth. But most of these prophecies can be affected by a
0:23:48   surface modification or service coding. So we modify the powder of the cathode on the road before
0:23:55   they get made into a binder and put onto intellect. We've caught it on to lots of different cathode
0:24:02   on our materials, ranging from L C O r N, C or N C and materials to silicon oxide or silicon carbon
0:24:10   composites on more commonly natural synthetic graphite on the outside. And when we do a nail
0:24:16   decoding on these cattle or animal powders, we see a stabilization of these materials. And so, by
0:24:23   doing this service modification and stabilizing the materials, you as a battery company or materials
0:24:28   company can take advantage of that at its stability in many ways. For example, you can run your
0:24:34   battery same conditions you normally would and get an increased cycle, life or increased calendar,
0:24:40   life or alternative. Tentatively, you can increase the voltage of the battery to get more energy out
0:24:47   for a given cycle. Life. We've been working in this space for many many years of moment on, we've
0:24:52   tried lots of different ale de coatings, so the Mawr common Ale de coatings are metal oxides like
0:24:59   aluminum oxide or detainee of Dark side. Some of the more advanced chemistries we're currently
0:25:04   working on include lithium ion conducting colleagues such as lithium, aluminum oxide or lithium
0:25:11   Naevia marks.
0:25:14   Here's a little bit of smoking gun data. Of course, we have a lot more than this that we can share
0:25:20   with you under non disclosure agreement. So on the left here, what we have is a lady coated and
0:25:26   uncoated cathode powder called NMC 811 On the blue line, we cycled the darker blue line, which is
0:25:35   the oil decoded material against the lighter blue line, which is uncoated, and you can see the
0:25:40   benefit in retained capacity over cycle time. With the old decoding that might not look like a big
0:25:47   difference. But when you're talking about applying this technology to electric vehicles, for example,
0:25:53   when you many thousands of cycles you can increase the battery life by years. With this ale decoding.
0:25:59   You can also see, for example, in the Green Line that when you stress these matters through a much
0:26:04   higher voltage. You do see a much bigger difference between the al decoded material on the uncoated
0:26:10   material. On the right side is similar data for sale decoding of just the graphite powder. So in
0:26:18   this case, the darker lower line is the uncoated graphite powder cycle against an uncoated capital
0:26:25   powder. On the top line, with a higher capacity retention over cycle number is an ale decoded
0:26:31   graphite powder cycle against the uncoated cap.
0:26:38   A lady for three D printing. There's lots of areas the L D commodified powders on one of those is
0:26:43   for metal powders or ceramic powders. For three D printing, the first main area, the lt can help is
0:26:50   flow ability, or how powder moves or flows to the you end up with something that looks like a very
0:26:55   nice European castle versus kids attempt at a bucket castle falling apart That show
0:27:03   the second area in three D printing is oxygen and moisture barriers, so everybody can enhance the
0:27:10   resistance to water or oxygen of that metal powder, which could help with transportation safety, can
0:27:17   help with shelf life. It could increase the number of times you could reuse a powder in a given
0:27:22   three D printing system, and also you could enable smaller outlets for final features. So here's an
0:27:30   example off what can happen with a nail decoding to prevent oxidation on the left. Here we have a
0:27:35   bear titanium powder, which has not been heated. Second to the left, we have that same powder
0:27:43   oxidizes in air at 450 Celsius for 20 hours. You can see that the second from the left picture is
0:27:50   the oxidized titanium, which is a doctor color. The third picture is also dark. This is a very, very
0:27:57   thin ale decoding, showing that we have to thin to prevent oxidation. With those conditions, the
0:28:03   three samples on the right, we'll show successful prevention of oxidation in there with thicker ale.
0:28:09   Decoding
0:28:12   the third area for three D printing is serviced opens or adding specific elements to materials, and
0:28:17   this can create stronger parts. You can create custom Malloy's You can change your spec to respect
0:28:24   of material if you're sourcing one power from multiple vendors and you need to end up with the same
0:28:28   spec for your process, and you can also affect certain processes within the three D printing
0:28:34   machines such as the Melco.
0:28:37   So here's an example of fact on the left. Here is a pure aluminum 70 75 powder that is being
0:28:43   manufactured with three D printing in tow apart, and you can see very large crystal domains when you
0:28:50   add zirconium. I don't mean to this material. You can see the crystal amazing much more on those
0:28:56   smaller crystal remains. Directly Coralie. Too much higher yield strength, elastic modules and other
0:29:03   mechanical properties. I'm actually with three D printing. There's many other areas you can affect
0:29:10   powers for enhanced parts.
0:29:15   The third example. Area I wanted to touch on his ale de Forca Tallis. So the ale difficult Telesis.
0:29:22   We consider that to be three main approaches for benefiting various catalytic materials. The first
0:29:29   approach is an eight out of the undercoat. This is where you take a substrate or their material in
0:29:36   gray. You added ailed de coding shown here in light blue, and then you have your active material on
0:29:43   top shown here in dark blue that active material could be deposited by a wet technique or via
0:29:49   standard catalytic deposition technique. But the oil decoding here in light blue would be with our
0:29:54   process and this can help durability and some activity. Secondly, you can actually use atomic lay
0:30:02   deposition to deposit small amounts off the active material. For example, a platinum or palladium or
0:30:08   atheneum type active catalytic metal. And this could help with selectivity, benefits or activity
0:30:15   benefits potentially with lower cost to get the same catalytic performance with lower loadings of
0:30:21   those expensive catalytic.
0:30:25   The third area for analysis is an ale de overcoat, so this is the most attractive for short term
0:30:31   commercialization for us, because you can take a standard catalytic material that already exists.
0:30:37   You can add an ale decoding to the top of it, and you can enhance your durability, which is
0:30:42   effectively, often lower in your centering of platinum, which helps maintain your activity. You can
0:30:48   have higher activity over time because of this, and in some cases, depending on the overcoat healthy
0:30:54   chemistry you use, you can actually modify and enhance the specific selectivity towards certain
0:31:00   catalytic chemical reactions. So this last point I'm here some images. I don't have too much time,
0:31:07   so I'm just gonna focus on the right side here on the top three images on the right, we have
0:31:13   platinum onto a surface with out a nail decoding on it. As you heat that platinum, you can see the
0:31:22   platinum. McGlone berates and creates a few, much larger nanoparticles than you started. This is a
0:31:30   collaboration, Carl, a star ready to worth catalytic performance over time. So that was the top
0:31:36   three right images. The bottom three bright images are that same starting material. So a platinum
0:31:43   coding that's our economy coating onto a surface, but this time with an ale de overcoat, and you can
0:31:49   see here under the same heating conditions. The ale decoding protects that platinum stops it moving
0:31:55   and keep your activity high over the life of your material. This could be useful for fuel cells or
0:32:02   for other catalytic materials,
0:32:06   So that was several examples of what ailed you couldn't do. Obviously, there are a lot more than
0:32:11   that. So the next question we often get from people is okay for my specific problem happened, How
0:32:16   can I work with you? So, first of all, we offer research services, So the way this works is we would
0:32:23   consult with you typically under a non disclosure agreement toe, understand your materials challenge.
0:32:28   We will then understand your materials and suggested research plan to provide you with some proofs
0:32:34   of concept for modifying that powder. We do some analytical here in house. We outsource some
0:32:40   analytical. And then, of course, it would likely yourself or customer that does the application
0:32:46   specific testing for that research step for research. We know that we can't solve all of the world's
0:32:52   problems with a OD coatings onto powders. So we actually sell R and D tools for a lady on the
0:32:58   powders on the L. D objects. So Athena is the name of our three D and four subjects ale de coding
0:33:04   system that we have that we sell across the world on Prometheus is our ale de on the power system.
0:33:13   For me, it can happen anywhere from a few grands up to about a kilogram off powders. And so, if
0:33:19   you're interested in these systems, I think will be providing links after the webinar to the two
0:33:23   page brochure for each of these systems. And, of course, you are welcome to ask us on any questions
0:33:28   you have there for the third main section on this slide, wanted briefly to about commercialization.
0:33:36   Our main focus is a company is to help you get as quickly as possible to products and help you
0:33:41   develop this products, typically in a joint development agreement, and then provide you with
0:33:46   commercial scale equipment such that you can produce those products escape. In some cases, we can
0:33:53   provide commercial told coding in in cases where it would prefer us to be the manufacturing with the
0:33:59   surface modification of those powers of yours.
0:34:05   So here's a little bit of information on the Prometheus system. This is the alien powder system.
0:34:09   It's designed specifically by a team of engineers with over 10 years of refining and iterating on
0:34:14   the design to make it extremely easy to use. Extremely versatile for different chemistries and
0:34:20   different powders and also customizable so you can purchase a base level system with us, and then
0:34:26   over time you can upgrade that system toe, have features, benefits or change. The size of the
0:34:31   reactive system is
0:34:34   the Athena system is very good for a lady. Coatings on objects and three D poorest objects on this
0:34:41   again has been designed for the flexibility in mind. This is a lower price point system for research
0:34:47   and development on uses our expertise in certain delivery of precursors to specifically target those
0:34:55   high service area objects or system. I will say that our power systems the permit. This system is
0:35:03   specifically designed for powders. There are a lot of a lady systems out there in the world that
0:35:08   were originally designed for wafer is a retrofitted or added to be used for powders, and we consider
0:35:13   our design based on a design on the power systems to be that of the negligence.
0:35:20   So we would like to open the checks for Q and A at this time, feel free to submit some questions.
0:35:28   Right now, I have prepared a few slides to talk to some questions that get commonly asked, So we'll
0:35:35   give you a few minutes to type those questions in. I will go through a few more slides, and then we
0:35:40   can address those questions as as we see fit. So first of all, the main question we get asked about
0:35:48   a lady on Powers is cost. It is very complicated question because there are many things that go into
0:35:54   calculating the ale, decoding costs on powers so we define or calculate model the oil decoding costs
0:36:02   as the total cost off coating per kilogram of rural powder and that would include cap ex
0:36:09   depreciation on all Texas Well, so for a lady coatings on the powders, there is two main cost
0:36:17   contributors to the picture. The first is the LG chemical cost itself, and that cost is affected by
0:36:25   the service area of the powder, which would dictate how much chemical use. It would also be affected
0:36:31   by the coating chemistry you choose, which defines the price point that the chemical and then it's
0:36:37   also affected by the thickness of the area coating that you choose to do with that we find optimum.
0:36:42   So part of our R and D efforts or joint development efforts with you would be optimized specifically
0:36:47   on the thickness and also try and target the correct coding chemistry for your specific service area
0:36:53   powder. The second main area that is affected by trust is a capital appreciation of the equipment.
0:36:59   So in some cases, if we're setting you equipment, then of course the size of the equipment will
0:37:04   determine the price point. And then the throughput of the equipment would determine how that
0:37:10   Catholics gets spread across the production off your powder in terms of kilograms. Sometimes we find
0:37:17   it beneficial to be the toll coding partner for you, so that that capital depression asset aspect is
0:37:24   kind of wrapped into a tow coding price where we would just provide a service for you on the right
0:37:30   hand side here is part of the most important graphs that I like to share with people. It's a graph
0:37:35   off service area versus particle size for below half micron in particle damage, him specifically for
0:37:43   acidic and Dr Particle. What this shows is that when you get below 190 m over No. 59 m in particle
0:37:50   diameter, you get ridiculously sharp increase in service, Eric, and that that record correlates to
0:37:56   your LG chemical costs your process in time on the throughput of the equipment. So we prefer to work
0:38:03   on powers that are larger than 59 m. But we absolutely can work on nana powers if the value of the
0:38:10   powder is high enough to justify a few more cost considerations. So I mentioned the higher cost L D
0:38:18   includes thicker and the coatings. Higher chemistry costs higher service areas on lower production
0:38:25   through but on the lower cost side. If you have a very thin. A only coding are lower cost chemistry,
0:38:32   so a chemical that has already scaled up for another industry a lower service area powder on the
0:38:38   high production throughput you could get extremely cost effective. Cody's. It's on the bottom here.
0:38:44   Just three use cases, three kind of example. Potential hypothetical examples on the left is a hard
0:38:51   cost example. So you see, we have a sicker ale decoding higher cost chemistry Hire service area.
0:38:56   Lower throughput of powder per year. A fairly low Catholics because it's a very small system and
0:39:03   that would have come out to be on the order of $1000 per kilogram scale for coding. Alien powers.
0:39:09   Now we understand a lot of powder materials are just not valuable enough to allow for $1000 a
0:39:15   kilogram. But there are some niche applications where that type of a coding would be cost effective.
0:39:21   On the far right is the other end of the spectrum, with a thinner ale decoding a lower cost, a lot
0:39:26   decoding in this case, aluminum oxide, a low service area I threw, but and then a regular Catholics.
0:39:34   Appreciation spread over a lot of throughput, and so, with example, like this on the far right
0:39:39   coating costs get down to or below about a dollar per kilogram and in some cases significant looks
0:39:45   significantly below the doctor kilogram. So anyway, we prefer to focus on the lower cost or the
0:39:52   medium cost a lot decoding solutions. But really, what matters is the cost of the idea of scale
0:39:59   compared with the value that they Andy brings to your material or the cost of the price that you can
0:40:05   sell that decoded powder for. So with that, I would like to hand it over to some questions. So we're
0:40:12   just gonna take a quick second hater of you some questions and will be right back after 32nd book.
0:40:19   Okay, it does look like a couple of questions are slowly coming through. Go ahead and continue to
0:40:23   submit questions if you have them, everybody. But it looks like one of the first questions was, How
0:40:29   do you work with international customers? That's a great question. We've been around working with
0:40:35   international comes customers. Since about 2013 on, we have customers to whom we have sold equipment
0:40:42   on and our racer services in China, in Japan, in Korea, in Europe, including Germany, France and the
0:40:49   UK and of course, the U. S. There are too many considerations that are difficult to bear in mind
0:40:58   when working with international companies. But some of those include shipping of powders in and out
0:41:04   of countries. So we work with a shipping company to avoid any logistical problems there. We also
0:41:11   have a translation company if translation is needed for translating documents, for example, into
0:41:16   Chinese, Korean or Japanese on and we regularly go through the's types of processes for the
0:41:23   international customers. So yeah, in general number problems work with international customers. We
0:41:29   do that on a daily basis. Okay. Along the same line somebody's asking. Is Prometheus ready for
0:41:36   install in Europe with all the code regulations? Great question. Yes. So upper meet this system,
0:41:42   which is our LD on power system is ready for installation into Europe. We have the ability for
0:41:49   certain geographical regions to add certifications to the equipment. So for Europe, the CE
0:41:55   certification will be the most relevant. We also have our Tektronix and other piece of our equipment
0:42:01   you l certified as well. If there are any additional certifications that you require in some cases
0:42:08   for example, with government work or military related work. We're happy to explores on a case by
0:42:13   case basis. But yes, the system is is definitely ready for installation in Asia and Europe. Okay,
0:42:20   great. Looks like another one from a customer asking, How do you quote uniformly with non uniformed
0:42:28   cathodes with particle sizes? One. Micro Beecher to 500? That's a great question. So the question
0:42:36   relates to ale decoding on powders where the powder particle size distribution is very white. So you
0:42:43   may have a powder that maybe by mobile, for example, where you have a clump of or a certain portion
0:42:50   of the powder at small particle size and a certain portion of the large, larger part in size. So the
0:42:56   way that a how the process works is itself limiting her exposure off your guests so you'd expose
0:43:04   chemical A and then purge it and then exposed chemical being purge it after on that self limited
0:43:09   nature means that you will get the same thickness of hail decoding on every particle, provided that
0:43:17   your process conditions are correct for that powder. And that's what we've become experts at over
0:43:21   the last 10 years is how you fluid eyes or how you move those powers. Have you correctly exposed the
0:43:27   right amount of gas to those powders? So the short answer is it's no difficult for us to uniformly
0:43:33   coat the same sickness on each particle size, even if they're mixed particle sizes in one batch. But
0:43:40   of course, the ppm or the parts per million of the L decoding will depend on that particle size. So
0:43:47   we couldn't control thickness and therefore we can also target ppm. We know the service area of the
0:43:52   powder. OK, we've got another question, which is How do you coat with safety while handling some of
0:43:59   the very aggressive precursors on a large scale? That's a real question on the good news for us. Is
0:44:07   that a lot of the aggressive or quote unquote dangerous chemicals that we plan Teoh implemented use
0:44:15   are already being used currently safely every day by companies in the 17 doctor industries such as
0:44:22   Intel, Micron, Tokyo Electron and other companies. So we have connected with a supply chain of
0:44:30   partners who provide safe equipment for dozing off those PIRA foreign chemicals at scale. What was a
0:44:38   very conscious on the research side not to try chemistries that we know would be cost prohibitive or
0:44:46   too dangerous to implement. And some of those examples may include coatings at scale that have
0:44:52   health classifications on the U. S. Fire code left four, for example. But the short answer is,
0:44:57   solutions already exist for most of those chemicals, and we're careful what we choose. So, James
0:45:03   asked, How do you prevent cross contamination between samples if we submit samples for free based,
0:45:10   fee based services? So for the fi based research services we do to those in our research scale fluid,
0:45:17   I've bed or other systems. So the way we avoid a cross contamination is between every material, even
0:45:26   often for the same customer. We will disconnect the vein coding body of our system from the system
0:45:32   on. We will clean it so we avoid contamination by cleaning between each step for certain told coding
0:45:39   at commercial scale. We can work with you to have a custom dedicated reactor body, which means only
0:45:49   your powders and your coatings go into that reactor body when we use a system and then, of course,
0:45:53   for commercial state systems that we could tell you that system would be up to you to use, but it
0:45:58   will be designed for a specific process. We also do a lot of analytical here. So we use I c p r e s
0:46:05   I c p for elemental analysis so we can check how good are competing procedures are on. They are
0:46:11   pretty good. Okay, It looks like we're getting low on time here. We've got just a couple more
0:46:17   questions. You guys can feel free to continue to submit questions if you do have them and we will be
0:46:22   happy to answer them offline. Thank you all for the participation. Today it looks like one of the
0:46:27   other questions was, Is there any potential risk when operating a assume operating the machines were
0:46:34   performing. Experiment's. There is risk operating any equipment in an industrial setting. We provide
0:46:42   you on the research scale with the system that is designed for a specific set of chemistries. With
0:46:48   Emanuel on, we highlight what those risks are and train you how to mitigate them as best as possible.
0:46:54   If you choose to do chemistry usual processes outside of our recommended guidelines, then that risk
0:47:02   typically falls on you. But we are very happy to consult with you explain or answer any questions
0:47:07   around safety. Our number one priority is the safety off you, your employees on the system. But
0:47:14   we've safely been doing hail de coatings at small and large scales for many years. I think that
0:47:22   concludes all the questions that we've had for today. Again, if anybody does have additional
0:47:27   questions, were happy to answer those offline. Both Stacy and Daniel are the experts and can answer
0:47:33   your questions as well as you can see on our slide here, or contacts for John and MCAS. Well, so
0:47:39   we've got a robust team support staff to help help you get started on any project. Our goal is to be
0:47:45   the atomic layer deposition experts in the world, and we would love to answer your questions. If you
0:47:52   haven't, that's it for today. Everyone again, you'll get a follow up email here shortly with
0:47:58   pertinent links to some of the content that we've gone over today to the presentation. A swell
0:48:03   assembling star website and use school Resource is in regards to healthy and contact information for
0:48:09   all of the folks who we have spoken to today. Thanks again for joining, and we hope you have a great
0:48:14   day